Light, Refraction, Reflection in Diamonds & Gemstones in Jewelry
Our gem cutters incorporate signature cutting techniques in our stones: create optic effects through negative space, using concave surfaces and sylindrical openings to being light out of the gemstone or by using optic dish which acts asa spherical mirror and half lens that opticall expands and contracts images in the stone, and Luminaires, which involves innovating cutting to take the stone to the next level by intersecting and illuminating light passing through it.
Another thing that we look at is optical density and geometry of the stones shapes, facets and placing them at the right places to create critical angle cones, total reflection, luster (flat, polished and shiny surface), grading (proportions, perfection of polish, and orientation of the stone in relation to to its crystal graphic axis), internal angles, and depth of the stone. This factors are important to achieve brilliancy (the proportion of white light that stone is capable of returning back to the eye caused by pavalion facets) , dispersion (light due to prism effects in crown facets which split white light into its spectral components), fire (the display of prismatic colors), beauty (body color), luster (as the appearance of a surface when it reflects light directly to the eye), total reflection (the total light reflected back), refraction (the reduction in velocity of light in denser materials), color intensity (the amount of light returned back ), scintillation (a twinkling effect), angles (something going on at each angle which carries through the design highligthing the colors and optical effects of the stone) and extinction (the amount of darkness or blackness).
We try to achieve "sizzle" between the stone and its optical properties.
The study of light has fascinated physicists throughout the ages. Newton believed it was a particle, Young demonstrated that it has wave properties. This physics model presents light as traveling in very thin beams called rays. Here, we will be considering mechanical waves. This type of wave is defined as a disturbance that moves, or propagates, through a medium. Light waves have much in common with mechanical waves, they share a lot of mathematics. However, for a complete understanding light waves you will need a bit more explanation than will be found here. There are several ways to think about light in physics. One very useful way is to think of it in terms of rays. That is, to imagine light to be traveling in very narrow pencils, or beams. When you do that, we say that you are modeling light as rays. This method allows one to develop an understanding of several light phenomena including common reflections and refractions. It is called the study of ray optics. Actually, the emergent beam above needs to be thought of as being very, very narrow. A ray of light is imagined much like a line is imagined in mathematics. Imagine a ray to be infinitely thin. We use ray optics to trace the path of light.
When a beam of light falls on a reflective surface, such as the facets of a diamond or a gemstone, portion of the light enters the stone and portion of light is reflected. The reflection of light is often discussed using phrases such as "a ray of light bounces off of a mirror." They have a wave nature. Waves are often described as turning back, not bouncing, when they reflect. The angle of incidence, or approach, and the angle of reflection are equal, and that the two beams are in the same plane. The angle of incidence is measured from the perpendicular. The angle of incidence is formed between the normal and the incident beam of light.
Light travels in air at a speed of 186,300 miles per second, its velocity is reduced when light passes through denser substances such as diamond and gemstones. In relativity physics we say that the speed of light is always measured to be the same value regardless of the frame of reference, and this speed is, therefore, constant. In that context, though, we are speaking of the speed of light in free space traveling through a perfect vacuum. Here, discussing ray optics refraction, we are dealing with light traveling through a medium, like air or water, and judging its speed through that medium through a frame of reference at rest with the medium -- the lab. It is this reduction in the velocity of light in denser materials that causes the natural phenomenon known as refraction. It is refraction that makes possible the action of lenses and most optical instruments and the brilliancy of diamond and other gemstones. Briefly, refraction is a simple change in the direction of light that occurs at the contact surface between two different substances, such as between air and a gem or between air and water.
Here, discussing ray optics refraction, we are dealing with light traveling through a medium, like air or water, and judging its speed through that medium through a frame of reference at rest with the medium -- the lab. It is this reduction in the velocity of light in denser materials that causes the natural phenomenon known as refraction. It is refraction that makes possible the action of lenses and most optical instruments and the brilliancy of diamond and other gemstones. Briefly, refraction is a simple change in the direction of light that occurs at the contact surface between two different substances, such as between air and a gem or between air and water. Refraction occurs when a light ray changes mediums. Light traveling from air and going into water would be an example of light changing mediums. The speed of light changes when it changes mediums. In almost every case the direction of the light ray changes also.Whether consciously or not, you have often actually "seen" refraction; e.g. when a straight stick through into water APPEARED to bend at the water's surface, or when an object inside a glass of water SEEMED to be in a different place than you knew it to be. If you have not noticed such examples of refraction, it may clarify the phenomenon if you experiment with a lead pencil and a tumbler of water. An experienced diamond man knows that imperfections in diamonds appear to be in other than their actual positions in the stone. One imperfection in a diamond will often be seen at the same time through two, three, or more facets and appear to be several imperfections, each in a slightly different position in the stone.
To illustrate the nature of refraction and why it occurs, we must consider light not only in terms of a single particle moving as a single wave, but in terms of an infinite number of these waves side by side that, when combined, form a beam of light having width. Its appearance in its simplest form would be similar to the long waves, swells or breakers on a body of water moving toward a shoreline. The long lines or breakers, are called WAVE FRONTS, and a beam always travels in a direction that is at right angles to its wave front of light.
Here are descriptions for the terms:
Now let us assume that a series of light waves is traveling in a parallel line, so that together they create a wave front at right angles to the direction of transmission. When the wave front strikes a parallel sided glass plate at right angles to the surface, it enters the glass and is immediately slowed down. Since the frequency, or rate of vibration, of the light waves does not change, the decreased velocity results only in shortening the wavelength of the beam, as depicted by placing the wave fronts closer together in the glass. When the beam leaves the glass, it immediately resumes its original wavelength; thus both velocity and direction are the same when leaving the glass as when entering.
But suppose that instead of entering the glass at right angles to the surface, the beam strikes the surface on an OBLIQUE angle. It can be seen that as the left portion of the wave front enters the glass, it is slowed down. However, since the entire wave front does not pass into the glass at the same time, that portion on the right, which is still in the air, continues at the same velocity. By the time the entire wave front is in the glass, its direction has changed. Since the direction of travel of the broad light beam is always at right angles to its wave fronts, the beam within the glass now begins to travel in a new direction. The amount of this bending from its path in air is proportional to the difference in the velocity of light in the two substances, air and glass. This bending of light is called refraction; it occurs when light passes obliquely from one medium into another of different optical density.
Obviously, just the opposite bending occurs as the light LEAVES the glass. When material through which light passes has parallel sides the direction of the light beam as it enters air will be parallel to its direction before entering the material. If these sides are not parallel when the beam returns to air, its new path will not be parallel to the original path. For example, Figure 8 shows that occurs when a beam of light passes through a prism; the amount of bending that occurs depends on the angle at which light enters the new medium from air and on the optical density of that material.
The optical density and thus the strength of refraction varies from species to species. Zircon, for example, reduces the velocity of light traveling through it much more than does opal. The velocity at which light passes through a given species is a constant for that species. Also, since the reduction in velocity of light as it enters a gem determines the degree of refraction, or bending, of the light, the angle of refraction for any given angle of incidence is also a constant for every gem species. The comparative ability of a gem to bend, or refract, light is called its REFRACTIVE INDEX (abbreviated R.I). This is expressed not in velocity, but as the ratio of the speed of light in air to its speed in a substance. For example, diamond has an R.I. of 2.42. This means that light travels in air at a velocity 2.42 times greater than its velocity in the diamond, the latter being approximately 77,000 miles per second. Because R.I. is a measure of optical density, the higher the R.I., the greater the degree of bending for each angle of incidence (except the perpendicular, of course). Refractive index is measured by an instrument known as a REFRACTOMETER.
Thought should be given to consider light source, light beam, light wave, light dimensions, light direction, light intensity, light speed and velocity, light's parallel long lines, light's strike, atmospheric conditions (moisture, vapor, clouds, particles) and alike. Then thought should be given to measurement of the light and light controls which include light and shade, direction, source, intensity, speed, velocity, wavelength, angles and create a effect on the at multiple levels as well as from all the viewing angles with special consideration to body surface, negative and positive space in the stone as a result of cutting and facets.
Then thought should be given to the desired visual effect as a result of light striking the stone. The results that are desired are maximum of light, color burst, circle of radiance, circle of illumination, brillance, scintillation, space, shine, gleam, intense flashes of light which should be reflected towards the viewers eye acting as a mirror. Morever consideration should also given to planar relationships, spatial relationship, surrounding effect, dimension, make things to come to life, light and shade, perspective, shadows, highlights, distance, length, breath and more. In conclusion a design to mirror and reflect the optics a lights up the whole space that is close to a natural phenomena which outspans the confines.
Visually, light and shadow help us make sense of what we see and help us understand texture, dimension and perspective. The appearance of light and shadow tells us a lot about the surfaces and textures in the image. You can use light to give your designs depth and visual interest. Controlling the source(s) of light in your designs (even if just with a linear or radial gradient) can help create atmosphere in your page designs. Perhaps the most important part of working with lighting is knowing where the light(s) is coming from. The light source will most likely determine where the highlights and shadows fall (although with Web design you can afford to bend these rules in places). Use the “global light” effect so that all of your lighting effects follow the same light direction. It can also help direct the eyes to a focal point in the design. In the real world, very few things have a flat tone. Light and shade are on everything. Subtly using gradients is a great way to provide depth and makes things come to life on the screen.
The key with gradients is not to overdo them. If you’re using Photoshop, make use of layer styles for your gradients. This gives you the freedom to edit them at any point; it also means that if you resize the element, the gradient will rescale too.Subtle gradients are the most effective. Gradients give depth to surfaces and objects and also give it texture.
Highlights can help balance shadows and should be used on the edges of objects closest to the light source. Highlights are often overlooked because when used effectively, you don’t even notice they’re there. And while not suited to every situation, a tiny highlight can make all the difference in polishing an interface. The “sharper” the highlight, the shinier the surface will appear.
Like gradients, drop-shadows have become a staple of most artists. Shadows can really add visual depth and texture when used the right way. The key is not to overdo it.
You can do a lot beyond basic drop-shadows to give elements a third dimension. Longer shadows are a great way to change the spatial relationship between objects in a space.
A list of desired effects:
limpid, serene, majestic
to work miracles
ranged over various mediums of artistic expressions
outspan the confines
All the details
Fidelity of Detail
worthy to inspire love
eyes, noting all the phenomena
eyes, observing with curiosity
look good with or without
don't show do show
lights up the whole space
her voice making a full circle in the air
light illumines the whole of a ring
with greater radiance and casting a shadow
warmth and radiance
lightsup with radiance
scintillation of stars
moon in the constellation
the image reflected on the eye
fluid lines upwards
shines in the moon
mirror well fitted
stones reveal greater radiance
maximum of light
its long lines illumines all the
reflection of the rays that strikes upon it, and then rebound towards the eye
which are distributed throughout the ring
Think, then, what this diamond will look at so great a distance
its light illminates
each one of the diamond will lit up when it is struck by the
eye will always show the diamond against
intense flashes of light that travel great distance
shadows striking intense flashes
design to mirror and reflect the optics
polished and frosted effects
open and airy in design
achieves a composite that was feminine, pleasing, and holistic in a practical housing to support a substantial gem
elegant armature, a seat for the gem
the design element echoes
concentric circles seen within the stone itself
getting to the heart of the stone which is always at heart of our designs
a creative voice
pieces have a great
the challenge is to meet that symphony of balance in two languages
specializes in contemporary designs
that are known for their simplicity and clean fluid lines
with unusual gemstones and diamonds
a hallmark of our distinctive style
a firm believer in allowing the gemstones to "speak to the viewer"
instantly experienced a celestial epiphany when gazing into
the first thing that came to mind
galaxy of shooting light and color
carved optical dishes resemble planets
vision manifested itself into an out-of-this-world.
Our principles and guideline for the desired effect of internal unity of light and stone is inspired by these studies:
Why in the eclipse of the sun the body of the moon when it is opposite to us show itself in the middle of the sun with part of its radiance somewht like that of molten iron. This proceeds from the moon which derives its radiance from the stars, and not from the earth because this is darkened.
Morever as the eye moves when carried along the line of the ship it sees the image of the sun moving along the same line as that of the movement of the eye; but it will not be parallel for as the sun moves to the west the line of the images moves in a curve towards the sun, in such a way as to seem finally to unite with the image of the sun when it has reached the horizon.
When the sun during an eclipse assumes the shape of a crescent, take a thin plate of iron and make a small hole in it, and turn the face of this plate towards the sun, holding a sheet of paper behind it at a distance of a braccio, and you will see the image of the sun appear on this sheet in the shape of a crescent, similar in form and color to its cause.
The sun has substance, shape, movement, radiance, heat and generative power; and these qualities all emanate from itself without its diminution.
The solar rays after penetrating the little holes which come between the various rounded particles of the clods take a straight and continous course to the ground where they strike, illuminating with their radiance all the air through which they pass.
If the moon is a mirror of our earth, when it is at the full the earth will be half dark and half illiminated, or perhaps more than half dark. And of the dark things we cannot discern the shapes of the objects within their boundaries.
The adversary says that the light of the moon illumines the portion of the eart seen by it, and for this reasn, as earth is surrounded by water, the only the water reflects the light of the moon, and the earth as it is not smooth or polished it its surface as is the water, does not transmit the image of itself to this water, and so it remains dark, and thus our water shines in the moon with the darkness of the islands which surrounds it.
The month has every month a winter and a summer. And it has greater colds and greater heats and its equinoxes, are colder than ours.
The sun is composed of great number of indivisible parts; and although this sun is possessed of bodily substance its powers are incorporeal consisting of heat and radiance; and since an incorpeal power has no substance not having substance it does not occupy space, and not occupying soace it does not close the aperture, and consequently the passage through this aperture to and fro is permitted to each spirit at the same time.
It is possible that solar rays reduced through a pyramid to a point by the conclave mirror is redoubled in warmth and radiance; as these rays are in the derived pyramid they are thrown back by a similar mirror to an equal distance from the point.
I find that those circles at night that surround the moon, varying in circumferences and in their degree of redness, are caused by the different degrees of thickness of the vapors which are situated at different altitudes between the moon and our eyes. And the circle that is larger and less red is in the first part lower than the said vapors; the second. being less is higher and appears redder, because it is seen through two sets of vapors; ans so the higher they are the smaller and the redder they will appear, for the eye and them there will be more layors of vapors, and this goes to prove that where there appears greater redness, there is greater quantity of vapors.
The moon is not luminous in itself, but it is well fitted to take the characterstics of light, after the manner of mirror or of water or any other shining body; and its grows large in the east and in the west like the sun and the other planets, and the reason for this is that every luminous body grows larger as it becomes more remote.
It may be readily understood that every plannet and the star is farther away from us when in the weat than when it is overhead, by about 3500 miles according to the proof given at the side; and if you see the sun and moon reflected in water which is near at hand it will seem to be the same size in the water as does in the sky, while you go away to the distance of a mile it will seems hundred times as large. And if see it reflected in the sea at the moment of its setting the image of the sun will seem to you to be more than ten miles long, because it will cover in relection more than ten miles of sea. And if you were where the moon is, it would appear to you that the sun was reflected over as much of the sea it illuminates in its daily course, ad the land would appear amid the water like the dark spots that are upon the moon, which when looked at from the earth presents to mankind the same appearance that our earth would present to men dwelling in the moon.
When all that we can see of the moon is illuminated it gives us its maximum of light, and then from the reflection of the rays of the sun which strike upon it and rebound towards us its ocean throws off less moisture to us, and the less light it gives the more it is harmful.
Certain mathematicians contend that the sun grows larger when it is setting, because the eye sees it continually through the atmosphere of greater density, alleging the objects seen through mist and in water seem larger.
Think, then, ehat this star of ours would seem like at so great a distance, and then consider howmany stars might be set longitudinally and latitudinally amid these stars which are scattered throughout this dark expanse.
Sun, I do not perceive in the universe a body greater and more powerful than this, and its light illumines all thecelestial bodies which are distributed throughout the universe.
The stars are visible by night and not by the day owing to our being beneath the dense atmosphere which is full of an infinite numbers of particles of moisture. Each of this lit up when it is struck by the rays of the sun and consequently the innumerable particles veil these stars; and if were not for this atmosphere the stars will always show thestars against the darkness.
First explain the mechanism of the eye, then show how the scintillation of each star originates in the eye, and when the scintillatin of one star is greater than that of another. And how the rays of stars originate in the eye. Some say the sun is not hot because it is not the color of fire but is much paler and clearer. To these we may reply that when liquified bronze is at its maximum of heat it resembles the sun in color, and then when it is less hot it has more of the color of fire.
The surface of water without waves lights equally the places struck by the reflected rays of the image of the sun in the water.
Earth is a star almost like the moon, and thus you will prove the majesty of our universe.
It is said that the stars at night appear most brilliant in proportion as they are higher up, and that if they have no light of their own the shadow cast by the earth when it cones between them and the sun would come to darken them, since these stars neither see nor are seen by the solar body.
The extremities of the moon will be more illuminated and will show themselves more luminous because nothing will appear in them except the summits of the waves of the waters; and the shadowy depths of the valleys of these waves will not change the images of those luminous parts which from the summits of these waves come to the eye.
Moon that shines consists of waters and it serves the body of sun as a mirror which reflects the radiance it receives from it; and that if this water were without waves it would show itself as small but of radiance almost equal to that of the sun, it is necessary now to show whether the moon is heavy or a light body.
Thus if it wre a heavy body-considering that in progression upwards from the earth at every stage of altitude there is an accession of lightness, inasmuch as water is lighter than earth, air is lighter that water and fire thn air and so continuing in succession-it would seem that if the moon had density, as it has, it would have weight, and that having the weight the space in which it finds itself would not be able to support it, and as a consequence it would have to descend towards the center of the universe and to join itself to the earth; or if not the moon would fall away and become lost to it and devoid of radiance. The fact that however these events do not occur as might with reason have been anticipated is a clear sign that the moon is clothed with its own elements, namely water air and fire and so sustains itself by itself in this other part of space.
Some might say that the air which is an element of the moon as it catches the light of the sun as does our atmosphere was that which completes the luminous circle on the body of the moon.
Some have believed that the moon has some light of its own, but this option is false, for they have based it upon the glimmer which is visible in the middle between the horns of the new moon, which appears dark where it borders on the bright art, and where it borders on the darkness of the background seems so bright that they have assumed it to be a ring of new radiance which completes the circle where the radiance of the tips of the horns illuminated by the sun ceases.