Know Everything About Diamonds
Diamonds are a
mineral, a natural crystalline substance, they are the transparent
form of pure carbon or nearly pure carbon. Diamonds have
extraordinary qualities. Diamonds are naturally found in a broad
colour range, they have high refraction and high dispersion of fire,
they have a very low reactivity to chemicals, diamonds
are extremely rare, and of course, extremely hard and durable.
Diamonds are known as the "king of gems" they glitter,
dazzle, and symbolize purity and strength.
A diamond is
the oldest thing you will ever be able to own, probably about 3
billion years in age and two thirds the age of the Earth. A diamond
is a strategic and high-tech super material for our technological
society. Diamond is the birth stone for the month of April.
A diamond is
composed of the single element carbon, and it is the arrangement of
the C atoms in the lattice that give a diamond its amazing
properties. Both diamond and graphite are composed of just carbon.
However a diamond is the hardest known material and graphite is one
of the softest known materials, this was caused by a rearrangement of
the way a diamonds atoms are bonded together. Diamond carbon atoms
are linked in a regular three-dimensional lattice with a repeating or
belongs to the cubic, or 'isometric' crystal system. The most
commonly seen crystal structures or arrangements are: - Octahedron (8
faces) - Cube (6 faces) - Dodecahedron (12 faces)
A diamond is
the ultimate gemstone, having few weaknesses and many strengths. It
is well known that diamonds are the hardest substance found in
nature, but few people realize that diamonds are four times harder
than the next hardest natural mineral, corundum - sapphires and rubies.
diamonds are formed deep within the Earth's mantle layer from the
element carbon, about 180km below the surface, where high
temperatures and pressures exist. Some diamonds form at depths of
300-400 kilometres, or even deeper, but these diamonds are
mantel is made up of molten rock, metals and other materials. The
temperature is very high at this depth - between 1100 degC and 1400
degC. The high pressures needed to form diamonds are produced by the
weight of 180 km of rocks pressing down. Besides carbon, there are
very small amounts of other substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur
that can become trapped in the crystal when it is formed in the
mantel. These impurities can give color to the diamond. One of the
most rare is pink diamonds. Natural diamonds are classified by the
type and level of impurities found within them.
Due to its
unique internal structure and powers of light reflection, when cut to
proper proportions, diamonds gather light within itself and then
sends it back in a shower of fire and brilliance. The 'life' of a
polished diamond is regarded as the amount of light that is reflected
back to the viewer. The term 'life' is also referred to as
'brilliance'. If the diamond is cut with good proportions then the
brilliance will be increased. Lustre refers to the surface gloss on a
polished diamond. Fire the play of colours that can be seen from the
crown of a polished diamond. As light enters the diamond it is
refracted and broken up into the colours of the spectrum and
reflected back. The resulting rainbow-like colour flashes are called 'fire'.
of diamond is an important property. As an industrial tool it has
many uses and modern industry is highly dependent upon it. As a
gemstone, it is resistant to scratching and abrasion, which ensures
that a finished gem will retain its brilliance and polish. Because of
its hardness and the unique way in which it is manufactured, a
diamond polishes very slowly. It forms an unusually flat,
finely-polished 'adamantine' surface, with very sharp, straight edges
between facets. No other gemstone can match a diamonds standard of polish.
the highest coefficient of thermal conductivity of any known
substance because the closely-packed crystal structure conducts heat
very quickly. The thermal conductivity of diamond is five times
higher than that of copper. This explains why a diamond feels cold to
the touch when first picked up but quickly becomes warm from the heat
of your fingers.
one-fifth of all mined diamonds could be considered of gem quality.
From 40 to 250 tons of gravel and sand must be processed today to
recover one rough diamond from the world's thinning diamond deposits.
Leading experts and scientists estimate that all known supplies of
the worlds natural diamonds will be exhausted within 30 to 40 years.
75 - 80% of all diamonds mined are used for industrial applications
such as drilling, grinding, or sawing. The remainder are used for
jewellery or investment. Less than 2% of the diamonds mined are of
such high quality that they may be considered investment quality.
250 tons of ore must be mined and processed to produce a one carat
diamond of gem quality. When the mining operation is completed,
sorters look at rough diamonds, separating them into small piles by
shape, size, and quality, a long and laborious process.
examples of diamonds in human hands were found 3,000 years ago, in
India. There, diamonds were used primarily as talismans to ward off
evil and protect the wearer in battle. Diamonds were also used by the
early Chinese, Greeks, and Romans as an engraving tool. While there
was some mystique surrounding diamonds because they were so rare and
difficult to obtain many early cultures believed they had magical properties
"diamond" comes from the Greek word "adamas"
meaning unconquerable, in reference to the eternity of love. In 1477,
Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave a diamond ring to Mary of
Burgundy, thus, starting the tradition of diamond
engagement rings. The reason a woman wears an engagement ring on
her third finger of her left hand dates back to the Egyptian belief
that the vena amoris (vein of love) ran directly from the heart to
the top of that finger.
Many of the
rarest diamonds occur by rare accidents of nature in shades of pink,
blue, green, amber, or even red. These diamonds are referred to as
"Fancy" diamonds and are evaluated by a different set of
color standards. Fancy diamonds are the most expensive due to their
middle of the 20th century, De Beers began using its slogan "a
diamond is forever" in its advertising. Their campaign was
so successful that today, diamonds are strongly associated with
engagement rings and eternal love.
It is the only
gem mineral composed of a single element making it the purest of
earth's gemstones. Therefore it is fitting that the purest and most
brilliant of all the world's gemstones make the diamond
engagement ring the perfect symbol of eternal love.