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This cut has rounded corners and the facets are assembled into a pattern that resembles cracked ice. In essence, a radiant cut diamond is a square or rectangular gemstone with slightly cropped corners that give it a characteristic eye-catching sparkle. vitreous humour aqueous humour crystalline humour albugineous humour ventrile rims of the eyelids pupil of the eye visual faculty fiery beam image of the sun power of vision preamble to perspective incorporeal power magnet the images eyeball luminous body Northstar bell clapper sound snake called lamia seen daily by the rustics attracting itself with fixed gaze as the magnet attracts iron the nightingale which with mournful song hastens to her death basilik power by its glance to deprive of the every living thing wolf has power by its look to cause men to have hoarse voices the ostrich and the spider are said to hatch their eggs by looking at them maidens are said to have power in their eyes to attract to themselves the love of men the fish called linno, which some name after St. Elmo, which is found off the coast of Sardinia, is not seen at the night by fishermen, shedding light with its eyes over a great quantity ofwater, as though they were two candles compass of this radiance lantern tinted green black centre of the eye prison of the memory circle of the light image of the moon in the east image of the sun in the west at this natural point become united and blended together with our hemisphere unfold so great a wonder guides the human discourse to the considering of divine things concourse of its rays phenomenon may be seen in the concave mirror pyramidal lines distance mountain to seem blue knitting-needle verily seems to colour its path with the impression of its hue lighting that moves among dark clouds the speed of its sinous flight make its whole course will seem a ring of flame organ of perception acts more rapidly than the judgement movement of water although slow than that of man always seems swifter the wisps of straw leaves its image imprinted eye will retain and preserve better within itself the images of luminous things than of shaded of things A rod or cord in rapid oscillation appears to be double eyeball = luce when a knife is fastened, quivers many times lord of a lute the radiance which bursts object imprinted on the rim of the eye eye convex mirrors the luminous body sends the images of itself to the eye, one goes straight to the pupil, the other two strike upon the convexity of the eyelids and from there leap back the brilliance that it has imprinted on the eyelid in the form of ray leaps back into the eyeball image of sun imprinted superimposed spaces interposed between the stars of the heaven was a real light a brand of fire brand of fire in a circle line of fire eye preserves shining image because radiance of star is most enduring the star moves by the line of the eye wisp of draw concourse of the lines pea-shooter kindle a fire with greater winders turrets phenomenon of sun shining on the rain-drops Brand moved in a circle seems an unbroken circle have the capacity of diminishing to infinity the whole circle made in the air sounds of a voice carries with it all the words spoken Pictagoras made use in his music fire assails it circle to circle just as circles of water strikes the circumscribing air bird beats the air note of the echo echo of the sound emanate Think, then consider characterstics of light shape of crescent mirror star eyes of cat ears of porcupine nose of greyhound eyebrows of lion temples of an old cock neck of turtle body of serpent heads of a mastiff lizards hedge hogs newts birds out of their cages breast to show it filled with lillies the horse frog flight of birds movement of the fishtail butterflies make experiments of this in their descent fall towards the centre by the shortest way A flight hover in the wind The Dolphin: Nature has given such power of understanding to animals that in addition to the perception of what it is to their own advantage know what is to the disadvantage of the enemy; as a consequence the dolphin knows both the power of a cut from the fins which it has on its back, and the tenderness of the belly of the crocodile, hence when they fight it glides underneath it, pierces its belly and so kills it. The crocodile is terrifying to them who flee from him and un utter coward when it is being pursued. The eagle when it is old flies so high that it sorches its feathers; and nature consents that that it renews its youth by falling in shallow water. And if its young ones bear to gaze at the sun it does not feed them. No bird that does not wish to die should approach its nest. Alepo. Fish: The alepo cannot live out of water. This opens completely when the moon is full: and when the crab sees it it throws a piece or stone or twig into it and thus prevents it from closing up, so that it serves the crab for a meal. Dragon: This twines itself round the legs of the elephant, and it falls upon him and both die. And in dying it has its revenge. Stag: This when it feels itself bitten by the spider called phalangiun eats crabs and rids itself of the poison. Lizard: This when it fights with serpents eats sow-thistles and gains its freedom. The Swallow: This gives sight to its blind young with the juice of celandine. Weasel: This when chases rats eats first of rue. Panther: This will still fight with the dogs and the hunters after its entrails have fallen out. Wid Boar: This cures its diseases by eating ivy. Serpent: This when it it wishes to renew itself casts its old slough, commencing by the head: it transforms itself in a day and a night. Crow: This when it has slain the chameleon purges itself with laurel. Chameleon: This always takes the colour of the object on which it is resting; as a consequence they are often devoured by the elephants together with the leaves on which they are resting. Tiger: This is a native of Hyrcania: it bears some resemblence to the panther from the various spots on its skin; and it is an animal of terrifying speed. When the hunter finds its cub it carries them of instantly, after plaxcing mirrors at the spot from which he has taken them, and then immediately takes to flight on a swift horse. Camels: The Bactarian has two humps, the Arabian one. They are swift in battle and very helpful for carrying burden. This animal is a great observer of rule and proportion, for it does not move at all if its load is larger than it is accustomed to, and it is taken too long a journey it does the same and stops suddenly, so the merchants are obliged to make their lodging there. submarine tantalizing beauty lucid expression votaries of classicm freedom of expression represent everything according to nature Rock of Achievement ethereal simplicity shield cut octagon cut kite cut right angled triangle French King Spectacle of the blend not married vegetarian left handed writing Cardinal of Aragon Origin for Etna's Fire Metrical Licence Water winding in wonder-working coil fables of vulcan's forge Capricious of Volatile Pridigy Treasury of Nature Landscape Backgrounds Structure of the Human Frame Inexhaustable Energy Reveal the ordered continuity Element Forces Light of Modern Reasearch No sinew or leaf would be conventional but taken directly from The son, not grandson of Nature Curious Appositeness The Fruits of his studies Versatility in Arts This habit of scientific investigation in inception subsidiary to the practice to the practice of his art aroused the wonder and admiration of his contemporaries The sun doesn't move Rich Harvest Temerity Traversed the whole domain of nature Discoveries and Observations Archaic Smile Conjecture and Prefigurement Harvest of a Lifetime Natural Phenomena and close analysis of their laws Methods of Investigation Undefined, Ungarnered Knowledge Outspans the confines of his age Purely artistic and creative faculities Human Spirit The Outlook, Never theless Theory of Practice Artistic Expression Fused Molten in the flame-heat of Genius Allurements Helen's Love Surmise Sum Up Ordered Effort Titanic Energy I Wish In Company of This is arranged To Work Miracles Most Beautiful Passages Flight of Time Glides Subtlely Divine Handiwork Labours dost look magnetic eye eye beholds is both rudder & bridle to the senses Terrestial Nature Error Fault not a step-mother but a compassionate nature the idea or faculty of the imagination Truth alone was the daughter of the time Science is the captain & practice the soldiers wisdom is the daughter of experience budding branches waving corn ravening lions and wolves fertile fruitful earth each new summer each new spring new months and new years rarefied Ensign, playing banner blown by the wind Enhancements and spirits can work and speak without tongues guide of the foolish multitude tranquil clearness of the air and transform it into the hue of the night thunder-claps and lightning-flashes rushing through the darkness impetus storm to overthrough Such an art it had the power to enhance the tranquil beauty of gemstone and transform it into pieces of ultimate beauty, to create coruscations and tempests with thunderbolt & lightning flashes rushing work miracles lord over all nations Art has the power to illuminate the tranquil beauty of gemstones and transform it into pieces of ultimate beauty Manifest Sophistical Sciences Supreme Certainity Supreme Fools The Necromancer & Enchanter Propel Itself Into Life The buried treasures, the jewels that lie in the body of the earth will also become manifest to him; no lock, no fortess, however impregnable will avail to save All eternity happen to alchemists, the would-be creators of gold and silver, and to Engineers who think to meak dead water stir itself into life Span of Life Design comphrehend the mind of God which embraces the whole universe Those parts united compose the whole of that thing which ought to be loved Fragrant fruits or flowers Works of Nature Demonstrated by natural instance Beauty is offpring of love; in order to abridge tranquil beauty of gemstones and radiant diamonds - embrace nature's treasures and jewels and transform a flight of life. Nature has power to work miracles on the subliminal tranquil beauty of gemstones and rarefied radiant diamonds - manifest, embrace and transform them into ultimate & coveted in beauty world has wintnessed in hundreds of years. Tendon Binds The Joint of Muscle and Bone Wings spring from the breast muscles are fastened upon the bones footprint handmade movement of fingers horse has big muscles horse nostrils shoulder lower muscles are attached to the bones and are called humerus, and which are attached above other muscles vessels and nerves of finger nerves, arteries and veins are not in the centre but on sides of the fingers muscles are embraced by these veins and nerves muscles are of two types shorter are called muscle and longer are called lacert all muscles serve to raise the ribs convergence of the muscles in the sphine keeps its upright, just as ropes of the ship support its mast; and the same ropes bound to the mast also support in part the edges of ships to which they are joined Motor muscles called humerus make in the humerus the motor muscles of the arm which cause it to straighten or bend muscles which merely moves the finger cosmograph shoulder-blades spinal column head and shoulders membranes of the joints of the bones start from the muscle of the thigh and of the leg membranes interposed between tendons and bones viol-player music of water falling into its vessel cords octaves lucifier angelic Jove Vainglory The Lumerpa: fame spiral staircases cathedral fountains piazza church fortresses pillars columns architect builder constructors buildings entrance exit walls tower window door garden pavilion garland sprinkle oak-tree pear-tree peacock cats horses screw lever windmills experiments magnetic sense of touch globe light and heat sun and mirrors the flowing of liquids mathematician fire waves of water & air inventions drying up the marsh clock to show hours, mins, secs current of the wind scissors ropes and pulleys coat of leather alarum-clock drilling-machine sledge for use in mud sledge for use in mountainous & rocky places time piece paddle-boat to make concrete: a box which can open & empty itself bellows machine for excavating earth saving of time which saving springs from the fact magnifying glasses a pedometer lamp The Mint of Rome Siphon Clock Ship Travel Time Water-Clock harmonic time travels in an hour how many miles ship can go in an hour gladius ensis willow galley warfare gift of nature movable bridge barges cannon caltrops galleys plates fastened fire-ball igniting wrapped in hemp soaked rhomphea catapult flammea the bow balls sparks galloping an arrow of fire galleries winding gallery tank bombards knife axe shield elephant roman greek fire mappello speak wirh gennoese about the sea fonds, glande, falce, folgoree, fragilicha, gladius, acinace, ruma, rumex, jaculo, veruto, livy, malcoli, miricide embraces within itself all the forms of nature the hands represents what the imagination creates lighosophy in nature offspring of nature ruddy hue ruddy light fire of redish colour dispising a subtle invention which with philosphical and ingeneous speculation takes as its theme more beautiful, more imaginative perspective is the bridle and rudder of painting then from nature in order to confirm light replied: stern voice: grapevine induce claws kite vestige of fire emit gleaming & shining flames intense joy great joy rejoicing delightful radiant beauty green forests flowery branches noble hearts reflected in sun's radiance organic tree citrus tree fig-tree plants cedar lily lotus peach-tree hazelnut hawk peacock rarefied magnaminity drape in red the great snake which twines itself round the legs flight upon a swift horse rosettes ptolemy adoration to think and devise shortest way discoveries observations embodiment of the spirit of renassaince are a record open seame such skilled fashion less rebuttable richly gifted by nature the period of naturalism subtility of atmospheric effects harvest of lifetime such rich harvest windsor manuscript leicester manuscript arouse most eloquent and picturesque writing moral and didactic contemplation of the vast and awe-inspiring in nature to represent a battle triumph of realism vigorous realism fidelity of detail grace in any rendering has been engaged though expressed is so wedded to the words as scarcely to suffer transference sentences record the phenomena of nature In the succint, antithetical form of their composition apparently created his own model forecast of future conditions the phophecies symbols and figuratevely life in triumph inculate reasoned process of the mind reformation freedom of thought authority title of heretic revealed as to the effect of age/death relentless approach of death beautiful as is the description the mind which designed penned it is pre-eminently that of the scientist see the anatomist at work with the scalpel patient exposition sun-steeped idylls amplified it and transformed it into a richer harmony by placing the atmosphere to time dense macabre observer looking with curios eyes noting all the phenomena of physical change, but yet all while preserving a strange impassivity confidence, serene, and proud glow over into life capricious support fervour of its votaries amazing temerity view the kingdom of sentiment from feminine standpoint the story of his heart is a romance with many chapters, each enshining a new name, and all ending in tenderness of human relationship paramount artworld solitude poetic musical solitary the praise of solitude companionship in the company of madonna son to a father springs of tenderness, love, care, emotions revealing eternal life transience man's work is ultimate self life so confident and full processes of nature highest fulfillment museum collection fragments of imaginative composition all the avenues of human knowledge mind in its workshop mind in its beauty recording phenomena researching in making conjecture forces of nature human instruments eye witness passed into other hands astonished solitude return for the services and favours done him in the past in the service of engage in executing Don Juan de Espina Pompeo Leoni Philip II Savoy Joseph Smith Ercole Bianchi Cardinal Duke king commemorated munificence memoirs glorius the air as soon as there is light is filled with innumerable images to which eye serves as a magnet nature works beauty of the nature eye beholds all the stars of our hemisphere union is in harmony rejoicing, pleasure and satisfaction love is united observe the light and consider its beauty eye beholds truth alone was the daughter of time wisdom is the daughter of experience conjunction immense shortest briefest nothingness continous infinite encircling air has to bind and circumscribe terrestial nature leaps forward into each new spring and each new summer, and to the new months and new years quintessence inherent in nature centre of the world strips a tree for adornment pre-imagining post-imagining the idea or the faculty of imagination is both rudder and briddle to the senses The privet on feeling its tender branches, laden with new fruit, pricked by the sharp claws and beak of the bird, complained to her with pitiful reproaches, be seeking her that even if she plucked off her delicious fruot she would at any rate not deprive her of her leaves which protected her from the scorching rays of the sun, not with her sharp claws bend away and strip bare her tender bark. Blackbird replied with insolent rebuke:-'Silence! rude bramble! The blackbird was caught in a net, and some bough were cut to make a cage in order to imprison her, and among the rest were some cut from her tender privet to serve for the rods of the cage. Blackbird deprived of liberty The laurel and myrtle, on seeing the pear-tree being cut down cried out with a loud voice:-'O pear-tree where are you going? stripped of your branches crow on top of a lofty campanile The fluttering moth, not contented with its power to fly wherever it pleases through the air, enthralled by the seductive flame of the candle, resolved to fly into it and its joyous movement was the occasion of instant mourning. So rich in having bells of such beauty and of such mellow tone, that it would deign to give it succour. Branches quivered asunder attain to such a height as she desired or ever point towards the sky. Nut begin to burst open and to put its roots in among the crevices of the stones, and push them further out of its hollow. Twisted roots grew thicker they commenced to tear asunder the walls and force the ancient stones out of their old positions The bird on finding a nest of small birds approached them with great joy The tiny bird, he began to kiss it, and in his uncontrollable affection he gave it so many kisses The unhappy willow opened wide portals of imagination remaining in continual meditation and seeing in the world of plants - her branchees quivered in her intense joy the gourd is by nature more fitted to bind others than to be bound itself she lifted up her branches towards the sky and waited on the look out for some friendly bird to serve as intermediary of her desire rapacious falcon when your wings craved rest delights you have enjoyed among my branches in armorous dalliance with your companions nest be in the fork of my boughs together with your family without payment or any rent never admit upon her boughs any snakes or polecat, cocked his tail and lowered his head and casting himself loose from the bough let himself float on the wings; and beaking about with these in the floating air, seeking hither and thither, nd guiding himself using his tail as rudder, he came to ground. These soon began to grow, and as the branches increased and opened out they began to cover all the branches of the willow, and their great leaves shut away from it the beauty of the sun and the sky. Wind blew rent open the willow's old and hollow trunk beautiful and glittering candlestick leaving its sisters in glowing and abiding life and beauty Wine, the devine liquor of the grape part of the country produced the most beautiful and finest grapes in the whole world eminence sacrifice to Jove resposses itself of the liberty The cedar, arrogant by reason of its beauty fulfill my desire to germinate bunch of grapes the traveller's joy companions The hawk duck spider fly hornet eagle oak capture the fly liberty by binding strong bonds desire of bearing fruit The cedar, having conceived the desire of bearing on its summit a large and beautiful fruit the peach-tree nut-tree bearing great quantity of fruit The nut-tree, displaying to the passers-by upon the road the richness of its fruit, every man stoned it. Wishing by producing this fruit The fire rejoicing in the dried wood which it had found in the fireplace gentle and tranquil soul explosions and showers of sparks rejoiced greatly Liberty A stony road A stone of considerable size, only recently left uncovered by the waters, above a stony road, surrounded by plants bright with various flowers of different colours, and looked upon the great mass of stones which lay heaped together in the road beneath Wheels of the carts, the iron hoofs of the horses butterfly was idly wandering and flitting flew around about it in varying circles marvelling greatly at such radiant beauty fragnant flowers, and directing its flight tips of its wings consider with astonishment another flight innumerable marvelled greatly carnal and wordly delights the butterfly The lily planed itself down upon the bank of Ticino, and the stream carried away the bank and with it the lily. The pen has necessary companionship with the pen-knife. The oyster being thrown out with other fish from the house of a fisherman When the crab had placed itself beneath the rock in order to catch the fish that entered underneath it. The spider had placed itself among the grapes to catch the flies that fed on them. a desire to rise above the air The mirror bears itself proudly, holding the queen mirrored within it, and after she has departed the mirror remains object. The love of virtue never regards a mean or bad thing, but always rather dwells among things honest and virtuous, and repatriates itself in noble hearts like birds in green forest upon flowery branches. This love reveals itself more in adversity than in prosperity, acting as does light which shines more where it finds darkest spots. wither up commence to flight looking fixedly venom of its gaze Cheerfullness is the characterstic of the lamb, for it rejoices over every little thing and sings with varied and joyous movements. black feathers The virtue of gratitude is said to be found especially in birds called hoopoes. Cubes Regain Your Liberty Flight of Fortune Bars of gold are refined in fire A smile. A vessel of unbaked clay when broken may be remoulded, but not one that has passed through the fire. Fame should be represented in the shape of a bird, but with the whole figure covered with tongues instead of feathers grafted good fruits one pushes down another: by these cubes are represented the life and conditions of mankind. Soars and rises upto heaven, virtuous things find favour with God. The goldfinch will carry spurge to its little ones imprisoned in a cage: death rather than loss of liberty. Figure of Fortunes Good Report Love, fear and reverence - write these upon three stones of cranes. Guard stand round with him at night holding stones in their feet bee has honey in its mouth and poison behind Ivy is the Emblem of Longevity Fire Destroys Falsehood Fire is put for truth Truth in the end cannot be concealed Envy contemptuous motion towards heaven wounded in the eye by palm and olive wounded in the ear by laurel & myrtle fiery serpent gnawing at her heart quiver with tongues for arrows made with a leopard's skin Most Christian King Company Vase in her hand full of flowers riding upon death whirling currents of the wind a great number of companies of birds wheeling movements bands drapped down low with a slanting movement waves of the great deluge plans for bridges solid and indestructable by fire and assault very light and strong to cutoff water from trenches how to construct infinite number of bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders & other instruments destroying every fortress unless it has been founded on a rock plans for making canon, very convinient and easy to transport, with which to hurl small stones in the manner of hail engagement was at sea, plans for constructing many engines caverns and secret winding passages underneath trenches make armoured cars canons, mortars, light ordinance catapolls, mangonels, traboochi complete satisfaction trial demonstrate Tommaso A day for a lady April 89 Thursday on the twenty-seventh of september twenty-third day of April eighteenth day of March last day but one of February on the sixth day of October on the sixteenth day of July First day of November Twenty-seventh of May Eighteenth Day of July Seventh Day of August Twenteith day of August' Twenty ninth day of January 2nd day of February Ninth day of July Greater radiance in the centre of this circle Moon when surrounded by the luminous part of the sun lights up the ocean molten iron moon which derives its raiance from the stars horizon the sun has substance, shape, movement, radiance, heat and generative power illuminating with their radiance all the air through which they pass moon is a mirror of our earth light of the moon illumines the portion of the earth by it earth is surrounded by water that only water reflects the light of the moon the moon has every month a winter and a summer and it has greater colds and greater heats and its equinoxes are colder than ours the sun is composed of a very great number of indivisible parts; and although this sun is possessed of bodily substance its powers are incorporeal consisting of heat and radiance those circles at night seem to surround the moon, vary in sircomference and in their degree of redness are caused by the different degrees of thickness of the vapours which are situated at different altitudes between the moon and our eyes greater redness, there is a greater quantity of vapours the moon is not luminous in itself, but is well fitted to characterstics of light after the manner of the mirror or of water or any other shining body moon grows larger in the east and in the west like the sun and other planets every planet and star is further away from us when in the west than when it is overhead, by about thirty five thousand miles then when all we can see of the moon is illumined, and then from the reflection of the rays of the sun which strike upon it, and rebound towards us its ocean throws off less moisture to us eye sees it continually through atmosphere of greater density, alleging that objects seen through mist and water seem larger luminous body appears larger as it is farther away stars scattered throughout this dark expanse its light illumines all the celestial bodies which are distributed throughout the universe the stars are visible in night and not by the day owing to our being beneath the dense atmosphere which is full of an infinite number of particles of moisture each of these is lit up, when it is struck by the rays of the sun and consequently the innumerable radiant particles veil these stars; and if it were not for this atmosphere the sky would always show stars against the darkness when liquified bronze is at its maximum of heat it most resembles the sun in colour stars at night appear more brilliant in proportion as they are higher up, and that if they have no light of their own the shadow cast by the earth when it comes between them and the sun would come to darken them, since these stars neither see nor are seen by the solar body the rainbow is seen in the fine rains by those eyes which have the sun behind the cloud in front, and a perpetually imaginary line which starts from the centre of the sun and passes through the centre of the eye will end in the centre of the arch surface of the moon is smooth and polished, and that, like a mirror, it receives within itself the reflection of the earth the sea derives its radiance from the sun as does the moon, it could not show the reflected image of the earth, unless one also saw reflected there separately the orb of the sun and of each of the stars which look down upon it moon is another world similar to ours, and the part which it shines is a sea that reflects the sun and the part which does not is earth if the gilded balls were furrowed or made up of many small globukes like mulburries, which are black fruit of minute round balls, then each of the parts of this rounded mass visible to the sun and the eye will reveal to the eye the radiance produced by the reflection of the sun the lustre of the n, and when it is less hot it has nore of the colour of fireew moon is brighter and more powerful than when it is full; and this is due to the fact that the angle of the incidence is much more obtuse in the new moon than in the full moon, where the agles are extremely acute and the waves of moon reflect the sun both on their hollows and on their crests, and the side remains dark continous and far reaching splendour upon the surface of the sea the moon is opaque and solid body, and if on the contrary if it were transparent it would not receive the light of the sun the centre of the world cannot be the centre of the universal circles made by the course of glittering stars encompasser and enveloper of this centre between the sun and us there is darkness, and therefore the air appears blue atmosphere is concave towards the earth and convex towards fire discover exact dimensions, and in addition to this by means of the sphere of water to calculate the size of the earth the size of the moon I shall discover as I discover that of the sun, that is by means of its rays at midnight when it is at the full the luminous side of the moon is of the nature of a mirror, this part is illuminated by the solar rays and not produced by innumerable multitudes of the waves of that sea the side of the moon which shines consists of water and serves the body of the sun as a mirror which reflects the radiance it receives from it; and if this water were without waves it would show itself as small but of a radiance equal to that of sun considering that in progression upwards from the earth at every stage of altitude there is accession of lightness complete the luminous circle on the body of moon circle of radiance which the moon shows glimmer which is visible middle between the horns of the new moon ring of new radiance which completes the circle where the radiance of the tips of the horns illuminated by the sun ceases illuminated waves grow larger spherical-mirror eternal and more enduring different grades of weight there are many varieties of weights as there are of thicknesses shellfish in the rocks nature is on the point of creating stones it kind of produces a sticky paste very beautiful blue color perfection of this blue beautiful blue is created blueness from the particles pronounced blue transparent blue dark blue color piece of black velvet as is seen with blue glass in sapphires blue ray thin smoke becomes blue deeper blue better be in the company you will profit by seeing how to avoid their errors you will acquire something of the manner of anyone whose worth is better than yours a rather commandable envy will stimulate you to join the number of those who are more praised, for the praises of the others will serve you as a spur you will be ashamed of being seen in the ranks of draughtsmen if you are outclassed by them, and this feeling of shame will cause you to make progress in study praises of others will tend to increase your powers graceful and elegant movements it is necessary to know inner structure of man a knowledge of the sinews, muscles, and tendons will know exactly in the movement of any limb how many and which of sinews are the cause of it, and which by its contracting, and which sinews having been changed into most delicate cartilage surround and contain said muscle so he will be able in divers says and universally to indicate the various muscles by means of different attitudes of his figures no small grace in a painter to be able to give pleasing air to his figures, and whoever is not naturally possessed of this grace may aquire by means of study be on the watch to take the best parts of many beautiful faces of which the beauty is established rather by general repute than by your judgement fix them in your mind good attitudes from the figure, and you can correct the limbs by those which you have studied during the winter occupied with conderation and investigation of things which by seeing continually present before this eyes furnish food to be treasured up in the memory if you're accompanied even by one companion you only belong half to yourself if you must have companionship choose it from studio, it may then help you obtain the advantges which result from the different methods of study. All other companionship may prove harmful investigate the forms of natural objects duty of companionship endeavouring to realise your conceptions in art of the method of learning a right how to compare groups of figures in historical pictures power of judgement harmonize with the size of the body but also with its age limbs of youth should have few muscles and veins and have soft surface and pleasing in colours in man they should be sinewy and full of muscles in old men the surface should be wrinkled, and rough and covered with veins, and with sinews greatly protuding how little children have their joints is the reverse of those of men in thickness and this skin acts as a sinew to grid and bind together the bones give the extended light in half-tone, adding afterwards and the high-lihts and high lights contrasting in the same manner make a head so that its parts may fit into their true positions to make a head so that its features are in agreement with those of a head that turns and bends you know that the eyes, eyebrows, nostrils, corners of the mouth and sides of the chin, jaw, cheeks, ears and all parts of the face are placed at regular positions upon the face therefore when you have made the face, make lines which pass from one corner of the eye to the other; and also for the position of each feature. then having continued the ends of these lines beyond the two sides of the face, observe whether on the right and the left the spaces in the same parallel are equal you must make these lines extend to the point of your vision gracefully in harmony restricted light free light light of the luminous body treat first of the lights cast by windows to which you will give restricted light; then treat of the lights of landscape to which you will give the name of free light; then treat of the light of luminous bodies: the figure is most worthy of praise which by its action best expresses the passion which animates it the limbs should fit the body gracefully in harmony with the effect you wish the figure to produce; and if you desire to create a figure which possess a charm of its own, you should make it with limbs graceful and extented without too many muscles natural and pleasing joints moving freely horses galloping away from the throng, make little clouds of dust as far distant one from the another as is the space between the strides made by the horse ruddy glow to faces and the figures let the air be full of arrows going in various upwards, other falling, others flying horizontally; and let the balls shot from the guns have a train of smoke streaming in the wind blood-stained mire riderless horse be galloping with streaming in the wind horses are galloping, stirring the water all around with a heaving mass of waves and foam and broken water leaping high into air line where the earth touches the horizon, except for the mountains which are in liberty to draw from nature stand three times as far away as the size of the object that you are drawing this benign nature so provides that all the world you find something to imitate As may be observed by looking at a hand held between the eye and the sun, when it is seen to flush red and be out of luminous transparency the disposition of the light should be in harmony with the natural conditions under which you represent your figure that is, if you are representing it in sunlight, make the shadows dark with great spaces of light when you are drawing from nature the light should be from the north, and if it is from the south keep the window covered with a curtain quality of colors becomes known by means of light, it is to be inferred that there is the most light there the true quality of colors so illuminated will be most viable show the true quality of the colours in the parts which are in light softeness and delicacy consider carefully what you wish to be doing make your work to be in keeping with your purpose and design careful always take care never to make consider carefully who reproduce the works of nature, behold the dimensions, the degrees of intensity, and the forms of lights and shadows of each muscle, and observe in the lengths of their figures towards which muscle they are directed by the axis of their central lines in representing wind, in addition to showing the bending of the boughs and then inverting of their leaves diminution in the distinctiveness of the form of bodies the diminution in their size diminution in their colour men may not all look as they were brothers wholefirmanent, lurid, flashings all animals which live upon earth resemble each other in their limbs, that is in muscles, sinews and bones, and thet do not vary at all, except in length or thickness as will be shown in the anatomy aquatic animals the horizon and the wholefirmanent was overcast and lurid with the flashings of the incessant lighting the figures are actively engaged on their purpose they face brightnness of the light, and they produce its radiance arrangement of figures is derived in agreement with the conditions you desire the action to represent interposed between light against these background contour lines of the natural bodies as possess convex curves will reveal the shapes of these bodies, although the colours of the bodies are the same hue as the background the turning-wheel a winder stones under the action of water firebrands whirled round in circle continous movement boundaries of the substance is a surface iterposed between the atmosphere and the body lateral boundaries the high lights or the lustre of any object will not be situated in the centre of the illuminated part eye that beholds it fashion the limbs correctly in the positions and actions know the anatomy of the sinews, bones, muscles, and tendons bundle of radishes consider three thing: the position of the eye that sees, the position of the object seen, and position of the light that illuminates the body folds of the joints of any limb everything that was in relief becomes hollow imitation of nature the draperies thin, thick, new, old, with folds, broken and pleated, shadow obscure and less obscure either with or without reflections, definite or indistinct according to the distance and the various colours, and garments according to the rank of those who are wearing them, long and short, futtering or stiff in conformity with the movements so encircling the figures as to bend or flutter with ends streaming upward or downwards according to the folds, clinging close about the feet r separated from them according as the legs are shown at rest or bending or twisting or striking together within; either fitting closely or separated from the joints according to the step or movement or whether the wind is represented the folds should correspond to the quality of the draperies whether transparent or opaque do not repeat same attitudes and the same expression on the thin clothes women in walking, running and jumping and ther variety make a discourse on the clothes and other movements who desire to perform great things, know that unless you first learn to do them well and with good foundations the work you will do will bring you very little honour and less gain, but if you do it well it will produce you plenty of honour and be of great utility nature and movements in man. do not repeat the same actions in the limbs of the men unless the necessity f their action constrains you let the dark, gloomy air be seen beaten by the rush of opposing winds wreated in perpetual rain mingled with the hail, and bearing hither and thither a vast network of the torn branches of trees mixed with a infinite number of leaves should show how fragments of mountains which have already been stripped bare by the rushing torrents, fall head long into thses very torrents and choke up the valleys until the pent-up rivers rise in flood and cover the wide plains and their inhabitants and all the waves that beat against their sides were striking them with repeated blows from the various bodies of the drowned and blows were killing those in hole life remained among them being wolves, foxes, snakes and creatures of evry kind, fugitives from death some groups of men you might have seen with weapons in their hands defending the tiny footholds that remained to them from the lions and wolves and beats of prey which sought safety there smitten by the fury of the thunder and lightning it flashed forth, which sped through it, bearing ruin, striking down whatever withsttod its course. loud approar caused through the darkened air by the fury of winds mingled together with the rain, the thunder of heavens and the raging of the thunderbolts. herds of animals, such as horses, oxen, goats, sheep were to be seen already hemmed in by the waters and left isolated upon the high peaks of the mountains contending waves raging thunderbolts of heaven which flashed light hither and thither amid the obscurity of the darkness velocity of the air running of a horse movement of the dust moves as swiftly darkness, wind, tempest at sea, deluge of water, woods on fire, rain, thunderbolts from the sky, earthquakes and destruction of mountains, levelling cities whirlwinds trees broken off laden with people ships broken in pieces dashed upon the rocks striking whirling eddies swollen waters wreathed clouds descending rain mounting up in the air circling waves impelled by impetus falling or descending through the air this water acquires weight and impetus piercing the water where it strikes it tears it apart and dives down in fury to reach its depth and then recoiling it springs back beating & rubbing themselves water that leaps up colours and scents of the flower green in landscapes as flame extends it becomes yellow at its upper part, then saffron in colour, and this ends in smoke there are many birds in the various regions of the world in whose feathers most radiant colours are seen produced in their movements, as is seen happen among the feathers of peacocks or o the necks of ducks and pigeons roots of radishes stagnent water at the bottom of wells landscape clouds are dark purple redness of the sun clouds interposed between the sun and the rain the mighty fury of the wind driven by the avalanches of the mountains above yawning caverns the trees smitten by the course of winds reflex movement when the sun is lower the arc has larger circle when the sun is in west, hidden behind some small and thick clous, then the cloud will be surrounded by a ruddy splendour clouds interposed between the earth and the sun, wherefore being in the west it grew red, and with its ruddy glow lit as with a haze all the things visible to it, but so much more or less proportion at the first hour of the day the atmosphere in the south near the horizon has a dim haze of rose-flushed clouds; towards the west it grows darker, and towards the east the damp vapour of the horizon shows brighter than the actual horizon the landscapes which occur in representation of winter should not show the mountains blue as one sees in the summer The mountains seen at a great distance that will seem deeper blue in color which is in itself darker; far when the trees are stripped of their leaves they look grey in colour and when they look grey in colour and when they are with their leaves they are green, and in proportion as the green is darker than the grey, the green will appear a more inrtense blue than the grey the defination of the blue colour of the atmosphere supplies the reason the landscapes are a deeper shade of blue in summer than in winter When the smoke from dry wood comes between the eye of the observer and some dark space it appears blue So the atmosphere appears blue because of the darkness which is beyond it; and if you look towards the horizon of the sky you will see the atmosphere is not blue, and this is due to its density; and so at every stage as you raise your eye up from this horizon to the sky On the top of the mountain the atmosphere will seem darker above you, just in proportion as it becomre rarer between you and said darkness; and this will be intensified at every successive stage of the height, so that at the last it will remain blue That smoke will appear the bluest which proceeds from the driest wood The finest rises the highest The under side of the leaf, although its colour in itself may be same as that of the right side, appears more beautiful and this colour is green verging upon yellow One belt of green behind another The high lights on the leaves, sun illumines the highlights the leaves Of the darker green seen from below The leaf is less transparent which takes the light at a more acute angle To represent landscapes with their trees, is to choose them with the sun in the sky is hidden, so fields receive diffused light Landscapes ought to be represented so that the trees are half in light and half in shadow; but it is better to make them when the sun is covered by clouds Grasses in the meadows When the sun is in the east grasses and meadows and the other small plants are of a most brilliant green; and this is due to the fact that the leaves illuminated by the sun within half our hemisphere namely the eastern half are transparent, while within the western semi circle the verdure has a somber hue and the air is damp and heavy of the color of dark ashes so that it is not transparent like that on the east, which is refulgent, and the more so as it is more full of moisture More moisture more green Less moisture dark blue The different shades of green of plants are as varied as are their species In the representation of trees in leaf be careful not to repeat same colour too often, for a tree which has another tree of the same colour as its background, but vary by making the foliage lighter or darker, or of a more vivid colour Blue of the atmosphere But leaves of yellowish green do not when they reflect the atmosphere create a reflection which verges on the blue Therefore the blue of the atmosphere reflected in the yellow of the leaf appears green, because blue and yellow mixed together form a most brilliant green The trees illuminated by the sun and the atmosphere, which have leaves of a dark colour, will be illuminated on one side by the atmosphere alone and in consequence of being illuminated will share its blueness; and on the opposite side they will be illuminated both by atmosphere and the sun, and the part which the eye sees illuminated by the sun will be resplendent The sun gives spirit and life to plants, and the earth nourishes them with moisture The leaf serves as a breast to nourish the branch or fruit which grows in the succeeding year The dark colours of the shadows of mountains at a great distance take a more beautiful and purer blue than those parts which are in light, and from this it follows that when the rock of the mountains is reddish the parts of it which re in light are fawn colored and the more brightly this illuminated the more closely will it retain its natural colour To represent landscapes, choose when the sun is at its meridian and turn to the west or the east, and then begin your work. All the trees which are towards the sun and which have the atmosphere for their background will be dark The line of equality and that of the horizon are the same Landscapes are of a more beautiful azure when in the fine weather the sun is at noon because atmosphere is free of moisture The leaves of the trees are between you and the sun are of five principal shades of colour: namely a green most beautiful shining and serving as a mirror for the atmosphere which lights up objects that cannot be seen by the sun, and the part in shadow The trees in landscapes are of various shades of green; for in some, such as firs, pines, cypress, laurels, box and the like, it borders on black; others such as walnuts and pears, vines and young foliage approximately to yellow; others to darker shades of yellow, such as chestnuts, oaks and the like others redden towards the autumn these are sorb, pomegranates, vines and cherry trees; others such as willows, olives, bamboos, and others like these, tend to become white. Silhouetted Light reflected on the strings of monochord Lightning flashes Surrounded and clothed with boundaries Juxtaposition Fire strikes Leaps Reflex stream Leaping Soaring Firing Throw back Deepest Intense Which is illuminated will transmit to the eye the image of its details more dstictly and more rapidly Streaked by the percussion of luminous rays Caused by the passage of the sun Impression it makes where it strikes resembles the luminous body from which it springs Spherical rotundity Circular shadow blended Travels through the air Simple shadow commences in the line Luminous lines Object that they enclose Mirror of the sun Mirror a flight of fancy United and joined together Pyramids will illumine Transform to its own nature enclosed within a visual pyramidal lines The columnar proceeds Upon which the eye rests Surround the light Derived shadow originates, there are manifestly created the figures of two surrounded by more dazzling brightness Defined contours Making a statement Effulgent of light Lit by reflection Potency of the lights of its illuminated portions The reason springs from our Take careful note of the situation The imprint of the shadow The waves which intersect after the manner of scales of a fir-cone reflect the image of the sun with the greatest splendor Ridges of the waves seen by the sun The radiance of so many reflections is blended There are two different kinds of light: free (freely illuminates bodies) and restricted (window or hole) Light of two different natures: separated to bodies and other united to bodies Separated is that which illuminates the body United is the part of the body illuminated by its light Shadows are of two kinds: primary that is fastened to bodies and derived is that which is separated from bodies – bearing in itself to the surface of walls the resemblance of cause Greater light will seem of greater body Bodies are smooth and while shadows of bodies as is by the illuminated or luminous Touched field Shadow is the expression of bodies and their shapes The eye on seeing it in the mirror put boundaries to it Boundaries of derived shadows are surrounded by the colours of the illuminated objects Luminous tinges Outline tinges Light outspans Eye projects an infinite number of lines and these attach themselves or mingle with that towards in which emanate from the things seen Perspective faculty is that what knows and judges bodies and colours All the rays which carry the images, therefore as the images through the air straight lines of the greatest bodies have to pass through the smaller openings, and beyond of this opening ro re-form in their utmost expansion The eye between two parallel lines will never see them at so great a distance that they meet at a point Finds pleasing, these it commits to the memory Among the various studies of natural processes, that of light gives most pleasure to those who contemplate it; and among the noteworthy characterstics of mathematical science, the certainity of its demonstrations is what generates most powerfully to evaluate the mind of its investigators circumlocution epitomize conclusive brevity illustrations drawn from nature or from mathematical science deducing results/inferred adding beauty substracting Vouchsafe to reveal me Lord who is light of all the things Interpret this light Retains their images in part This conclusion is proved by results The vision as it looks upon the light has a measure of fear Eye the images of vivid objects Eye has lost the last trace of the impression of the greater light Swiftness of movement in concourse of straight lines All things transmit their images to the eye by means of pyramids We look at the starry heavens without fixing our gaze more upon one star then upon another, for then the sky shows itself to us stewn with stars Amber is the latex of the cypress tree Take rubies of Rocca Nera or garnets and mix with lattimo, also Armenian bole is good in part Sap of spurge and milk of fig tree as a dissolvent Works of fame Show him first mounting his horse in full armour and the whole army following him; forty squadrons of horse and 2000 foot soldiers went with him Cost of work and material Horse’s hinder thigh-piece Centre should be shewn Prudence Dressed in red, representing charity Sitting on a fiery chariot With a sprig of laurel in her hand to indicate the hope that springs from good service Fortitude with her -----------, in hand clothed in white which signifies and all crowned, and Prudence with three eyes The housing of the horse should be woven of plain ------, bedecked with peacock eyes Coat of the man The crest of the ma’s helmet and his hauberk of peacocks feathers on a ----- ground Helmet let there be a half globe represent our hemisphere in the form of a world And upon it a peacock with tail spread out to pass Richly decorated And every --------- that belongs to the horse should be of a peacock’s feathers on a ----- ground To signify the beauty that results from the grace bestowed on him who serves well In the shield a large mirror to signify White stallion Big horse Sicilian Polishing instrument Water springs up fresh and bubbling Warmth of the spring is natural Ascended by twelve flights of steps to the great temple, which is eight hundred feet in circumference and built in the shape of an octagon Distinction, nobility and grandeur amazement and stupefaction the lofty and immense engines To a framed fortress of Garland Spiral staircase with rounded corners Staircase should enable one to descend from high-level to the low-level A temple garden To a castle Embrasures of fortresses Spiral staircase around a tower Belching flames Burning caverns Eddying wind scouring Green velvet Multitude of shells and ----- sticking to the rocks which are seen in the mountains of Parma and Piacenza Sketch of flock of birds Rising in flight Library Grammer Book Map letters Lapidary Red Spanish leather Red brazil wood Take fresh rose-water and moisten the hands, then take the flower of lavender and rub it between the hands, and it will be good Wings of birds Flight of birds Tail and wings of birds Helms of the wings Beating of wings Raises the bird Slanting flight of birds Bird wishes to ascend Embark on a journey to discover Embark on a journey of discovery the highlights of attractions that have been catching their fancy Embark on your journey with ------- flight A soaring mental journey above and beyond the normal everyday world a flight of life Embark the journey of a lifetime A journey of interplanatory travel Enjoy a flight of life Embark on a epic journey Let your imagination take flight of life Journey on a Memorial flight Journey on a commemorative flight Bark stripped off Barking trees Ring of bark Flight by beating with wings Flight without beating their wings Flight with the help of wind Mechanism of this movement Beating its wings With drawing of wing With drawing of birds wings The flight of birds Span of the wing Of the causes of the circular movement of birds Of birds which fly in companies Of flying things How the tail of the bird used as a rudder Of the inside of the wings Of raising and lowering the wings Of the spreading out of the feathers as the wings are raised The birds feathers The birds wings Of reflex winds Of the slanting movement of birds Theory of flying things Of the birds movement Of swimming and flight Of the commencement of birds flight The helms of the wings Wings of birds Feathers of birds The flight of birds Flying machine Parts of flying machine Man with parachute Sketch of wing Section of wing Artificial wings Shutters in flying machines Helm of flying machines The rudders of the wings of birds Sensation of flight Propels Flutters Spiral in the manner of the screw Rectilinear & curved Line of movements made by bird as they rise are of two A curving movement Out stretched Commencement of flight Helm of the wing Wind strikes Pursue Expanse Glide Winged Twists Spurts Rises If you wish Flaps its wings Leaps Eddying recoil has folded Greater swifter motion Wraps Embraces Encases Harnesses Spans light flow to conclude Light falls to conclude Light bends to conclude Muscles which lower the wings springs from the breat Show how muscles are fastened upon the bones Measurement of the length, thickness and breadth Sunset Moonlit Swan World/Universe/Globe Discover Explore Grace Sophistication Springs Liberty Emblem Symbolize Expression Resembles Companionship Elegance Pleasing Memorable Noteworthy Beauty Lord Works Fame Service Details Recorded Immense Intense Endure Hemmed Steeped Emanate Transform Epitomize Conclusive Conclude Grandeur Nobility Distinction Amazement Stupefaction Embrace Embrasures SignatureResplendent Expeller Semblance Glimmer Radiance Fire Effulgent Masnifestly Create Origin Statement Splendour Reflect Vivid Gaze Hope Fresh New Modern Audacious Release Innate Eminence Enhances Catches Echoes Harnesses Mirrors Embodying Celebration Flourishing Nourishing Nurturing Blossoming Release Capture Encapsulated Showcase Renew Heroing Evoke Symbol of Capture Emulates Resonating Entice Reviere Feminity Rarefied Ethereal Simplicity Imaginary Statement Binding Unfolding Spreading Ephemeral Moments Audacious Statement Radiating Incorporeal Phenomenon Guides Imprinted Real Delightful Joyous Rejoicing Quivered Asunder Tranquil Enjoy Relax Devine Pure Marvelling Astonishment Worldly Delights Carnal Repatriates Tantalizing Beauty Lucid Expression Votaries of Classicism Freedom of Composition Spectacle of the Blend Versatility in Arts Aroused Wonder & Admiration Adoration Allurements New Avenue of Approach Ordered Effort Titanic Energy To Work Miracles Most Beautiful Passages Subtlely Divine Subliminal Terrestial Nature The Enchanter A Spring Supreme Fools The Nacromencer Manifest Sophistical Sciences Supreme Certainity Arts Power Work Miracles Lord Works of Fame Offspring of Knowledge Stylistic Compositions Arrangements Design, Craftsmanship Coveted For Hundreds of Years Lomgstanding Favorites Succint Antithetical Beauty of the World Talisman Union in The Harmony Capricious Metrical Licence Official Fables of Vulcan’s Forge Capricious Volatile Prodigy Treasury of Nature Reveal The Ordered Continuity Inexhaustable Energy Light & Modern Research Discoveries & Observations Theory & Practice Fused Rich Harvest Harvest of A Lifetime Traversed The Whole Domain Nature Conjecture & Prefigurement Regain Your Liberty High Hightened Natural Phenomena Human Spirit, Purely Artistic & Creative Armorous Companions Eminence Engage Ruddle & Briddle Fluttering Bending Twisting Striking Bearing Hither Thither Smitten Leaping Soaring Whirling Swollen Encircling Bursts Streaming Mingled Recoiling Rudder Bridle Beating Rubbing Reflex Interposed Silhouetted Streaked Surrounded Travels Flight Journey Travel Commences Enclose Blending Projects Elevate To Rise Swiftness Soaked Spurge Transmit Movement Trace Eddying Scouring Belching Burning Force Fly Outspans Indulge Embark Flow Blowing Winders Torrets Explosion Showers Wheeling Currents Grows Turning-Wheel Flashed Fury Mingled Gnawed Contending Waves Whirlwinds Impetus Falling Impelled Circling Springs Back Flow & Ebb Deluge Elemental Forces Water Winding Wonder-Working Coils Raging Seething Sweeping Tearing Uprooting Rushing Inexorableness Swifter Kindle Beating Nature Anatomy Eye Wind Water Leaves Sun Moon Star Muscles Fire Air Atmosphere Light Shadow Waves Objects Colours Straight Lines Parallel Lines Luminous Lines Elegant Lines Flame Form Element Sky Heavens Sea, Lakes, Rivers, Canals Ship Forests, Landscapes, Meadows Horizon Boundaries Highlights Continous Illuminated Ascend Descend Concourse Surrounded Shining Luminous Body Light Characterstics Vision Gleaming Scintillating Sumptuous Gleaming Shining Shimmering Nourish Moisture Mirror Brightness Perspective Draperies Folds Joints Binds Fasten Springs Threads Cords Contours Flying Machine Screw Hemerns Humour Stripped Dissection Limbs Consider Careful Desire Wish For Reason of the Imprint Show How Describe Observe How Make this Create a Represent Order of Cause of the Origin of the Spring Autumn Fall Winter Summer East West North South Seasons Geometry Circular Pyramidal Triangle Right Angles Adcute Angles Obtuse Angles Square Circling of the Squares Cubes Spherical Rotundity Column Circumlocution Octagon Shield Kite Transparent Opaque Eyes Between Two Parallel Lines Image Imprint Illustrations Drawings Figures Sketch Defined Derived Outline Reveal Interpret Investigate Deucing Inferred Retains Memory Proved Demonstration Conjunction Centre of the world Centre of the earth Centre of the gravity Centre of the ocean Fall towards the centre by the shortest way Horse Galloping Cat Peacock Fish Bird Feathers Wings Rudder Flock of Birds Helms of The Wings Flight of Bird Bird Beating Wings Swan Butterfly Large Birds Eagle Pelican Snake White Stallion Big Horse Sicilian Flight on A Swift Horse Herd of 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Brothers Sisters Young Old Man Woman Cord Rod Knife Lute Rim Spring Screw Bells Coins Willow Madonna Isabella Helen Sketch Book Voice Speak Philosophy Christ Horns of New Moon Sun-Steeped Moon-Lit Sun-Soaked Sun-Sponged Convex Concave Whole Brand Fashion the limbs correctly in the position and actions Know the anatomy of the sinews, bones, muscles and tendons Bind the Joint Motor and sensory nerves Cord is Fastened Intercostal Muscles Transversal Muscles Ramification Contour Lines Flexor Motor Muscles Fastened Bind The Joints Humerus Muscles become transformed into tendon which binds the joint of the bone, to which this muscle is attached Threads True shape Measurement of the length, thickness and breadth Muscles which lower the wings springs from the breast Muscles are fastened upon the bones Footprint Movement of fingers Vessels and nerves of finger Muscles are embraced Nerves, arteries and veins are not in the centre but on the sides of fingers Veins and nerves with the muscles Muscle Lacert All muscles serve to raise the ribs Membranes interposed between tendons and bones Shoulder-blades Cosmography Convergence of muscles in the spine keeps it upright, just as the ropes of the ship support its mast Origin of muscles Origin of nerves Stripped of skin O1factory Caruncular Fingers, they transmit to the sense the impression of what they touch With open arms Cord is fastened Wrapped up in almost imperceptible membranes Nerves which are interwoven amid the particles of the limbs Topography of muscles and motor Demonstration of fine muscles by means of threds The ligment of the bones Rember, consider Toes – 60 bones Hand – 30 bones Order of Anatomy Consider Carefully Describe and represent Observe how Make this Draw the Show in Commence with Make A Beauty in The Air Beauty Like Air Springs up Holds the spring Spring ofv the wing Force of a spring The spring should offspring

Sndgems jewelry guides are easy to use, interesting and helpful guide to buying jewelry onle. Our jewelry guides are indispensable guide to judging jewelry characterstics, distinguishing genuine from imitation, making wise choices, useful to all type of consumers, from professional jewelry to online searchers.  Our diamond guides help everyone in viewing diamonds as gemologists, diamond experts, diamond dealers, experienced lapidaries, diamond buyers and online customers.  Our diamond guides dissects each aspect of diamond value in detail with a wealth of diamond grading information. Our gemstone guides help everyone in viewing colored gemstones as gemologists, gem dealers, experienced lapidaries, gem buyers and online customers.  Our gemstone guides dissects each aspect of ruby, sapphire, ruby value in detail with a wealth of gemstone grading information. Our guides offers step-by-step instructions for how to examine and judge the quality and craftsmanship and materials even if you dont know anything about jewelry.  If you're thinking of buying jewelry online this guide is a best place to start.  Our guides will help you to know about jewelry details such as finishes, settings, flaws and fakes. Our guides cover diamonds, gemstones, jewelry craftsmanship, treatments, diamond and gems sources, appraisals. There is something for everyone.


Engagement Rings Buying Guides

The history of engagement rings

When a woman gets engaged, the first thing her friends and peers ask for is to see her ring. Engagement rings are often the star of the show and can sometimes even overshadow the lovers themselves. Not too many people, however, put emphasis on what the rings represent---fidelity, commitment and love.

Diamond engagement rings first entered public knowledge when a diamond ring was given to Camillia d’Aragona by Constanzo Sforza in 1475. Equally famous was the magnificent band given by Maximilian, the Archduke of Hamburg, to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. However, diamond engagement rings were almost exclusive to royalty in the 15th century.

The majority of brides-to-be during the 19th century made do with sewing thimbles as their engagement gift. In Western cultures, engagement rings were usually worn only by women to indicate that they have been spoken for, and were about to be married. In other cultures, both men and women wore matching engagement rings, which often doubled as their wedding rings. There was no hard and fast rule as to who would buy the rings so the decision remained with the couple. And this remains true today.

Engagement rings through the years

Diamonds were first discovered in 800 B.C., but the popularity of diamond engagement rings came hundreds of years later. At the time, the caveman’s mate was happy with braided grass tied around her waist, ankles and wrists. The Roman author, Pliny the Elder, narrated how a gold ring was worn by the bride for the ceremony to symbolize the groom’s ownership of her. This would be replaced by an iron ring after the ceremony.

In Arab and Asian cultures, engagement rings came in the form of puzzle rings, which were designed to be extremely difficult to take apart and put back together again. The puzzle rings were used not as a symbol of love, but to test the loyalty of a wife when her husband was away.

The Europeans came closest to the idea and purpose of engagement rings with their Poesy Ring, which was a symbol of love, eternity and fidelity. Through the years, engagement rings evolved and were eventually placed on the fourth finger, which was said to be directly connected by a special vein into a person’s heart.

Engagement rings have become more ornate and expensive, thanks to the royals who wore them as jewels. Of all the pieces of jewellery, it is the ring that encapsulates commitment and eternal love. This is because of its circular shape, signifying no beginning and no end - complete unity. But more than anything else, diamond engagement rings have become popular symbols of eternity for lovers, thanks to the discovery of African diamond mines during the Industrial Revolution.

The DeBeers Mining Company played an important role in popularizing diamond engagement rings in the 1880s. Headed by Cecil Rhodes, the company not only controlled up to 90 percent of diamond production worldwide, but they also put together an aggressive campaign to make diamonds the way to every woman’s heart.

Today’s engagement rings are made of different metal bands with a variety of stones to adorn them. While diamond engagement rings are an all-time favorite, rubies, emeralds, sapphires and other stones have started to become popular centrepieces of engagement rings. To sell their diamonds, the company created on full-scale “Diamonds are Forever” marketing campaign. The campaign did not only encourage people to buy diamonds, but to keep them as family heirlooms to discourage old diamonds from entering the market.

Modern engagement rings come in a variety of styles, with the chosen stone encased in attractive flowers, hearts, romantic charms or any design the customer desires. Women the world over can now opt for antique, contemporary or classic engagement rings, depending on their taste and budget.

In more ways than one, engagement rings have reflected the changes that society has undergone over the years. These rings have indeed come a long way from the time they were given, not as a symbol of eternal love, but as a sign of ownership and male domination. With today’s society treating men and women equally, engagement rings have become more significant and true to what they represent—undying love, affection and everlasting hope.

Engagement Rings, Diamond Engagement Rings

Thinking of proposing to that special person? Then most likely you have started searching for that perfect engagement ring. Nothing compares to the classic elegance and beauty of a traditional diamond engagement ring. Widely recognized as a symbol of love, unity and purity, the diamond engagement ring never goes out of style and will surely be cherished for years to come.

How To Pick A Perfect Engagement Ring

We've all heard the saying that an engagement ring should cost about three month's salary, but that does nothing to tell us how to go about picking the perfect ring. It only tells us how much should be spent, and even then, it truly isn't accurate in today's world any longer. Honestly, how much a ring costs should not be the primary concern when choosing an engagement ring.

Caring For Your Engagement Rings

A Diamond Engagement ring is one of the most cherished possessions that you can own. Knowing how to properly care for your diamond engagement ring can ensure that it will last for an eternity.  A Diamond Engagement Ring is not only a precious symbol of your never ending love but  also a investment which should be well maintained and cared for.

Guide to Engagement Ring

You've given her your heart, now it's time to give her THE ring. We're here to help you select the engagement ring she wants and make the entire process pain-free (and panic-free). The ring, and the promise you're about to make to her, will be one of the most important events in both your lives. Here are some few tips that we have put together that you may find helpful.

A Guide to Finding an Affordable Engagement Ring That your Sweetheart Will Love

Determine Your Budget When a guy's shopping for an engagement ring, salespeople often do a sneaky thing – they make him think that the amount of his love is tied to how much he spends on a ring. Better to figure out how much you can afford to spend before you step foot in a store.

Guide to Building an Engagement Ring

While there is a large variety of a both contemporary and traditional engagement ring design available, many couples choose to build an engagement ring that specifically matches their tastes and budget. Before building your own engagement ring, however, you must carefully consider each step of the process to be sure you create a stunning ring that will symbolize your relationship for many years.

Guide to Budgeting for an Engagement Ring

Although it may not sound romantic, budgeting for an engagement ring is an important part of wedding planning. Budgeting for an engagement ring will allow you to carefully consider how your money is spent. Buying your engagement ring online is one of the best ways to stretch your ring budget. How do you budget for an engagement ring, and how can you get the most for your money? Buying an engagement ring will be one of the major purchases you make in your lifetime. You don't want to make a mistake, and you want to spend your money wisely. At the same time, you definitely want a beautiful, quality engagement ring that shows how true your love really is.

Guide to Finding her style and get an engagement ring she'll love

It is said that a woman's engagement ring should reflect her features and style. If you have the time and patience to find her style, picking an engagement ring will be much easier. Again, the point to emphasize is to find out what she wants and hopes to find in her engagement ring. It would do little good to buy a yellow gold engagement ring for a woman who dislikes yellow gold or a large sized diamond for a woman who likes simple elegant diamonds.

Guide to Engagement Ring Costs

One of the most confusing aspects of how to buy an engagement ring is the engagement ring cost. There are many factors that go into the ultimate cost of a ring, and knowing how each one affects the final price can help couples determine which cost fits within their budget.

Types of Engagement Rings

Rings are the token of love. Engagement ring is the mark of love, security and feelings which can not be explained in words rather they felt. Offering a ring is a unique way of expression of a romantic love. So, if you are in mood to propose someone, go for an exclusive and unique engagement ring.

Guide to Engagement Ring Settings

Hearty Congratulations on your decision to get married. It's the perfect time to choose an engagement ring and choosing an engagement ring is a big decision deserving careful consideration. After all, it's a huge financial and emotional investment. The choices are endless, and the availability of numerous engagement ring settings can be overwhelming.

The Beautiful White Gold Engagement Rings

White gold is gaining popularity over yellow gold, particularly for wedding and engagement rings. Women, value the beauty of white gold and its tendency to emphasize a diamond's brilliance. White gold engagement rings are as beautiful and timeless as those made of yellow gold. This article will give you an idea about white gold engagement rings before you make your decision.

Guide to the Vintage Engagement Ring

A vintage engagement ring is one that appears to be traditional, antique or historical, though the term "vintage" does not require that the piece be genuinely old. Vintage looking engagement rings are not only unique in appearance, but they are rare options for couples interested in a distinctive engagement ring. For many people, vintage rings are timeless, unique pieces with far more character than modern rings, and vintage pieces often become heirlooms passed down for generations.

Guide to Tension Set Rings

Tension settings are the ultimate in contemporary engagement ring design: they are also known as 'floating diamonds', or 'suspended diamonds', appear magically suspended in their settings. Tension set diamond rings are known for their stunning beauty and these rings have been a favorite among online customers.

Buying the perfect engagement ring

An engagement ring is a symbol of your commitment to a lifelong relationship. So it should be perfect. It's not just the bling-factor or the price tag that makes an engagement ring perfect.

Shopping for an engagement ring can be a stress-filled experience. You can avoid a lot of this hassle by buying an engagement ring online. Choosing the right engagement ring is a matter of knowing your fiancée and finding what she likes. Here are some tips on how to buy an engagement ring.

The Beautiful White Gold Engagement Rings

A popular ring style is the princess cut diamond engagement ring. After all, symmetry is beautiful, and this is one of the most symmetrical styles out there. This style is well suited for a diamond solitaire engagement ring. A princess cut is a rectangular shaped diamond that looks very attractive because it often has the same brilliance as a round shaped diamond. The clean edges add to the brilliance and wonderful aura of the stone.

The Beauty of Unusual Engagement Rings

"Wow that is a really beautiful but unusual engagement ring!" Maybe it was the setting, or the stone or the design of the band made the ring stand out. What makes unusual engagement rings unusual? it depends on the viewer. For many a people, unusual engagement rings symbolize not only their relationship, but their personality-unconventional, as well. A unique ring can capture the personality of the bride-to-be as well as the couple, and is all the more significant because of its charm.

Inexpensive Engagement Rings

Inexpensive Engagement Rings are rings that are exchanged between two people to seal that lifelong relation that binds two people for their entire lifetime. There are many types of engagement rings available, including the expensive rings like Diamond Inexpensive Ring, Gold Diamond Ring and Titanium Ring.

Guide to Men's Engagement Rings

Today, a revolution is taking place with engagement rings, and men's engagement rings are increasingly popular. Men's engagement rings are just as important as women's. While most women may go for flashier rings with jewels and precious metals, most men will prefer something much more simple and sober. If you take the time and have the patience to think out what kind of ring will suit your fiancé best, you should have no trouble picking out the perfect engagement ring for him.

Princess Cut - A Unique and Beautiful Diamond

Few cuts are quite as unique and beautiful as the princess cut diamond engagement ring. A Princess Cut Diamond Engagement Ring is indeed a fabulous piece of jewelry which symbolizes a promise of undying affection for that special someone in your life. This ring is perfect in every way.

Guide to Princess Cut Engagement Rings

Buying a diamond engagement ring is part of a much larger decision that goes far beyond jewelry, tradition, or money. The round solitaire diamond is a beautiful classic engagement ring style and chosen by many people. All diamonds have facets, which allow the light to enter it and refract a rainbow of colors, making it brilliant. A better cut will have a great effect on the beauty of the diamond. The princess cut is one of the most recent innovations in diamond jewelry, particularly diamond engagement rings. Princess cut engagement rings are non-traditional but are also classy and stylish.

Guide to Designing Your Own Engagement Ring

With online stores it has never been easier to design your own dream engagement ring. You can browse through thousands of ring selections; dramatically cutting down the amount of time spent shopping. Online shopping will help you to design your own diamond ring as easy and fun and you will find the perfect diamond that symbolize the love you have for each other.

Guide to Modern Platinum Engagement Rings

Platinum is a beautiful, naturally white metal that is between 90 - 95% pure. This purity makes it completely hypoallergenic, perfect for those with sensitive skin. Gold and platinum are the most popular choices when it comes to wedding engagement rings. In recent years, platinum has been making a comeback largely due to its natural beauty and star appeal. Celebrity stars have been seen sporting platinum engagement rings and have remembered the superior quality and beauty of platinum. Platinum is harder than gold and it is sure to last a lifetime. Therefore for lifelong decisions such as engagement and marriage the longevity of platinum makes it an excellent symbol of lifelong commitment.

Easily Build the Perfect Engagement Ring of your Dream

While there are a large variety of both contemporary and traditional engagement ring designs available, many couples choose to build an engagement ring that specifically matches their tastes and budget. Before building your own engagement ring, however, you must carefully consider each step of the process to be sure you create a stunning ring that will symbolize your relationship for many years.

Wholesale Engagement Rings

Love is something that complements the inherent personality of the bride and this is the reason why rings are always considered as a token of love which the love of your life will treasure for a lifetime.

What Should I know when buying an Engagement Ring?

Buying an engagement ring is an important and emotional event for the bride to be. At the same time it should also remain enjoyable and memorable. While the time is "magic," buying an engagement ring requires thought. Should you surprise your intended fiancée or should she help you shop?

Get Her To Say I Do

Asking the woman that you love to spend the rest of her life with you is probably one of the most memorable, life-altering, and importantly terrifying event that you will have to go through in your life. No, I don't want to add to the butterflies you already are harboring in your stomach, but certainly, you want everything to go perfectly, even if you're not really worried that she might say no.

Ruby Engagement Rings

Romance and ruby engagement rings go hand in hand. As a true sign of love and passion, it is a must gift for your beloved, a perfect way to say you care for her. Preferably, it comes in red color but nowadays, it is also gaining popularity in pink, purple and brown colors too.

Engagement Rings are the Symbols of Love

Engagement rings are symbols of the love a couple shares. The very shape and design of the ring, can bring out additional symbolism that many couples incorporate when they design a ring or select the perfect ring to represent their relationship.

Platinum Diamond Engagement Rings are stunningly beautiful

Rings made of platinum represent the ultimate in luxury and durability and will dazzle her today and survive to shine on your 50th wedding anniversary. Combining platinum with a diamond will create a ring that can last a lifetime, and with care, even become a family heirloom. There are hundreds of styles to choose from for truly distinctive rings, as platinum is growing in popularity.

Elegant Platinum Engagement Rings

Platinum engagement rings are considered by some to be the Vein of Love and for couples to physically show their love and devotion to the world. Platinum engagement rings are gorgeous and nothing more is pristine and pure than an engagement ring made of platinum, that's why it works as an engagement symbol.

What Should I know when buying an Engagement Ring?

For couples looking for something a little special, white gold promise rings can be the ideal way to demonstrate their commitment and love. Engagement rings are virtually synonymous with diamond engagement rings, but diamonds are a new addition in the engagement ring tradition. The first engagement rings were primarily used as symbols of eternal love because a ring has no beginning and no end, the wholeness of life.

Buying an Engagement Ring made in Dreams

Engagement ring is a symbol of love and commitment to a lifelong relationship. So it should be perfect, it's not just the bling-factor or the price tag that makes an engagement ring perfect. Choosing the right engagement ring is a matter of knowing your fiancée and finding what she likes and say "yes" to your proposal. For that try to find the engagement ring that suits her personality the best.

Tips to Build an Engagement Ring

Building an engagement ring from scratch is a task, which is sure to bear fruits if you have the time and patience for it. Before building your own engagement ring, however, you must carefully consider each step of the process to be sure you create a stunning ring that will symbolize your relationship for many years.

Claddagh and Celtic Engagement Rings-For a Truly Symbolic Wedding Engagement

An engagement is an extraordinary time full of new feelings of commitment, affection and love for the happy couple. Such a special and unique time really should be remembered by using ideas and symbols that stand for those emotions, and Celtic engagement rings are a perfect choice.

Elegant Diamond Solitaire Engagement Rings

Despite the many designs, settings, and styles available, diamond solitaire engagement rings remains bride-to-be's most popular choice. While it seems simple, a diamond solitaire can still be a unique ring designed to suite any tastes. The statement "less is more" is true with diamond solitaire engagement rings. If you're seeking an engagement ring, plenty of selections are available in online stores

The Beautiful Platinum Engagement Rings

Platinum rings are quickly catching up as the popular choice than the traditional gold bands for many reasons. Platinum is brilliant, distinctive, durable, stylish and sophisticated, and a wide range of different wedding ring styles are available for both men and women. Platinum is a rare metal and it's rarity and beauty has made it a status symbol.

The Classic Gold Engagement Rings

Gold engagement rings are one of the most popular choices and classic choices around the world in various cultures and religions. While white gold is growing in popularity, yellow gold continues to be the leader when it comes to gold engagement rings. Most online stores will have large selections of Gold engagement rings, and in various price ranges and styles.

Online White Gold Engagement Rings

White gold engagement rings gained popularity after the ban on platinum use for non-military manufacturing during World War II.  Prior to that time, platinum had been the more popular choice for rings in the.

Emeralds Engagement Rings

The richness and sparkle of emeralds make it suitable for royalty. Generally princess and queens used emeralds to decorate themselves. Thus, it is a gem of high esteem and value - emerald diamond engagement rings is a very modern engagement ring choice.

Guide to Unique Engagement Rings

Everyone loves to celebrate their one-of-a-kind relationship; unique engagement rings may be just what you are looking for. From gold metals to rings that you design yourself, unique engagement rings are as individual as your relationship. Engagements are full of the promise of a new life together, and many couples want a ring as unique as their love.

Tips for Cheap Engagement Rings

Many men cringe at the thought of a diamond engagement ring because they automatically associate it with a high price tag, but it is possible to purchase a cheap engagement ring without sacrificing quality or beauty. Couples can choose inexpensive engagement rings for a variety of reason, but just because they pay less does not mean they have less beautiful or lower quality rings to symbolize their relationship.

Guide to Engagement Ring Designs

When you begin shopping for a ring, you will realize that there are hundreds of options to consider when selecting the perfect engagement ring design. With so many styles to choose from, how do you know which engagement ring is best? Full of sparkle, glitter, and shine, there are many different diamond ring designs to choose from when selecting the perfect engagement ring. From classic designs to contemporary creations, there are perfect designs to accent any wardrobe or occasion.

Tips for Finding Her Ring Size

You have decided you love your girlfriend and to propose to her, but don't know her ring size. It's not a problem there are several ways to find out her ring size without spoiling the surprise. These tips will help you find her ring size, without her even knowing.

Celebrities and Their Engagement Rings

Society is fascinated with celebrity jewelries from necklaces and bracelets to earrings and tiaras and no pieces are more enticing than the celebrity engagement rings. A celebrity engagement ring not only symbolizes a loving commitment, but also offers the fans an intimate detail about their favorite stars. An engagement ring, after all, is not a Hollywood show up, but mostly an intimate emotional expression of one.

Engagement Ring Shopping

Proposal, Engagement and Marriage are an embarkment upon a lifetime commitment. Commitment demands a sign of your devotion, which is why the circle shaped ring symbolizes eternal love and commitment.

In order to find the perfect piece of engagement ring, many couples turn to online shopping, as retail jewelry stores only offer a limited selection of predictable engagement ring styles. While it may be easy to find a traditional or classic ring, Unusual Engagement Rings or rings with unique settings or uncommon Diamond Shapes are more difficult to locate.

Guide to Engagement Ring Trends

Many women want modern styled engagement rings that are fashionable and timeless. Diamonds are very traditional for engagement rings of course, but more stones are being incorporated to update the look of the most popular precious stone used in rings- diamond. Today's engagement rings have evolved from simple designs to rings with stylish designs and settings to give the ring a stunning look and feel.

Brief History of Engagement Rings

Engagement rings have been used for centuries to symbolize love and commitment. Ancient Egyptians, who believed that the ring finger on the left hand contained a vein that went directly to the heart so it's also called as the ' Vein of love'. Today, an engagement ring given by a man to a woman is a sign of their individuality and wholeness in love. Exchanging rings have been practiced in almost all cultures around the world from time immemorial and the shape of the ring-circle symbolizes eternal love and the wholeness of life.

Guide to Engagement Ring Insurance

For most people, an engagement ring is the largest investment they have made thus far in their life. Aside from it's symbolic and emotional value, it also can be expensive just like we insure every other expensive things like cars, home etc. you should insure your engagement ring to cover in case of damage, loss, or theft. Insurance policies can cover damage to your expensive engagement ring such as a warped band, twisted setting, or missing stone. In the case of theft, loss or damage to the ring, the policy holder will make a claim. As with other insurance claims for cars or houses, a report is made to the insurance company. The report and incident is investigated and the claim is paid directly to the policyholder.

Guide to Emerald Cut Diamond Engagement Rings

For couples interested in a fabulous and stunning diamond with a traditional look, emerald cut engagement rings are a beautiful and surprisingly affordable option.

Guide to Antique Engagement Rings

Couples now days choose Antique engagement rings for their engagements as engagement rings are a symbol of timeless love and the antique rings are a perfect choice for symbolizing traditional and timeless love for eternity.

Celebrity Engagement Ring Designers

When most people think of designer jewelry, they think of impossibly expensive pieces and out-of-reach standards. Designer wedding bands and engagement rings, however, can be surprisingly easy to find and afford, depending on the designer and the type of ring.

CZ Engagement Rings: Beautiful and Affordable

Most couples looking for a traditionally beautiful ring, but cannot afford a diamond, consider a CZ cubic zirconia engagement ring. CZ rings are clear, sparkling, and less expensive than diamond rings.

Facts about Invisible Set Engagement Rings

Invisible set engagement rings are less-popular but have emerged as the ultimate luxurious engagement ring design that maximizes the brilliance of its diamonds. An invisible set engagement ring gives the illusion of one large gemstone and is done by using numerous smaller gemstones clustered together with no spaces or metals separating the gemstones. When one sees them, the closely set gemstones appear as one big, beautiful stunning gemstone.

Guide to Marquise Engagement Rings and Alternative Gemstones

Marquise engagement rings are a new set of rings which is rapidly growing popular with brie's and diamonds is the choice for most marquise rings. There are others gemstones that are just as stunning, or even more brilliant, than a traditional diamond. Marquise engagement rings are out of the ordinary in as its unique cut and brilliant sparkle isn't something seen on a regular basis. Marquise rings bring in a different look to the ring, so you could try other gemstones as well without bothering about diamond. Birthstones with Marquise Engagement Rings

Marquise Diamond Engagement Rings Introduced

The stylish and simple yet sophisticated lines of marquise diamond engagement rings makes them the most popular choices for bridal sets as well as other accented rings and solitaires. Marquis rings are actually named after French nobility. Marquise ring like the French taste are made for a style statement and for it's exquisite looks. Marquis ring designs are based for giving importance to gemstones.

An Introduction to Oval Diamond Engagement Rings

Oval diamond engagement rings are a perfect and beautiful choice for couples interested in a classic engagement ring design with both vintage and modern appeal. While choosing an engagement ring, the shape of the gemstone is important thing as the shape you choose should compliment your fingers, and not be just a beautiful ring. Gemstone shapes can cause different effects like the oval rings are said to produce a slimming effect.

Guide to Traditional Solitaire Engagement Rings

With the many designs, styles and settings available, diamond solitaire engagement rings remain bride-to-be's most timeless and popular choice. While the diamond solitaire engagement rings may seem traditional and simple, a diamond solitaire can still be a unique ring designed to suite any tastes. Solitaire means "alone" or "single" it shouldn't be a surprise that solitaire engagement rings contain only one gemstone

Introduction to Choosing Emerald Cut Engagement Rings

Emerald cut engagement rings are the best and most popular cut to show off a diamond's best features. Emerald cut is oblong or square with diagonally cut corners, stacked in a terrace formation. The effect is a long sight line that takes advantage of clarity and color. Even though emerald cuts are not as popular as princess radiant cuts or traditional round, you'll enjoy a nice price savings and you can use the extra money to purchase a high quality or larger diamond.

Designer Engagement Rings

Most people love to have that special design that has been created to their very own specifications, makes a special ring even more unique and special. Getting engaged is one of the most beautiful moments in life and you want a perfect ring to capture that moment. Designer engagement rings are expensive starting from thousands to millions of dollars. If you're not financially wealthy? even then there is a designer engagement ring is waiting for you.

Secrets of Buying Diamond Engagement Rings Online Without Getting Scammed

When you evaluate all of the different scams that are occurring right now on the Internet it may seem unsafe to buy diamonds online. You maybe looking to buy a diamond engagement ring or a diamond wedding ring online, but aren't sure how to proceed.

Wholesale Jewelry Stores

When we say l do; the next thing that comes to your mind is something which is in bulk and abundance and that is generally related to discounted prices and cheap quality. People go for mainstream stores to buy their favorite pieces of jewelry rather than going for shopping. In fact, wholesale stores offer a great option in choosing a variety of gems and metals which are effectively low in their prices.


f you want an engagement ring that is unique and classy at the same time, you might consider giving your lady love an antique engagement ring. Nowadays, brides-to-be are showing their unique style and individuality by selecting antique and estate engagement rings. Many couples look at the future brightly by purchasing something from the past.


The fad died in the 40's, but was reborn again in the 80's and 90's. Known as Style Moderne in the 20's, it received its more popular name of Art Deco in the late 60's. Spawned by a healthy economy at the end of WWI, it represents positive outlook, collective good spirit, and futuristic color and imagination. Fighting to end the austere and stuffy designs of the Victorian and Revivalist eras, it combined luxury, versatility,  and function in a cacaphony of color in art deco jewelry such as art deco engagement rings with ruby, emerald, sapphire and diamond.


The mood during the 1920s was optimistic and the future seemed bright. World War I was over and the economy was booming throughout the world. Jazz music was all the rage, women had won the right to vote and the flapper further liberated women. The Machine Age was in full swing and technology was rapidly improving the quality of life.

Diamond Jewelry Care, Cleaning and Maintenance Tips

Diamonds are the most popular choice for making fine jewelry due to a variety of reasons like its beauty toughness, rarity, history, resistance to damage by heat or scratching. However diamonds are not indestructible .They are very vulnerable at the girdle and can be chipped by sharp sudden blows. You can pass your diamond jewelry like your diamond engagement rings, anniversary rings, diamond earrings, diamond bracelets, diamond pendants to your future generations without too much maintenance effort due to their durability provided you follow our expert jeweler recommended tips. Clean your diamonds regularly using a commercial jewelry cleaner, a mix of ammonia and water, or a mild detergent. Dip the jewelry into the solution and use a soft brush to dislodge dust or dirt from under the setting. Read More.

Buying a diamond ring may be the one of the most important jewelry related decisions one has to ever make. Our jewelry guides is designed to help you get the best buy possible.  Our diamond guides are highly informative - useful for first-tine diamond buyer, the gemologist, and the jewelry retailer. Its a must read for everone who is planning to buy jewelry online.  Our guides offer a wealth of information keeping explanations streamlined enough so even the first-time diamond buyer can confidently buy diamond jewelry online. Our guides shows you step-by-step how to evaluate diamond and settings in different designs and metals.  Its helped thousands of diamond buyers make smart decisions - and it can help you to. Read More.

Famous Diamond Mines

Diamonds are made up entirely of carbon. Pressure (diamonds can’t form above 100 miles below the earths crust) and temperature (750+ degrees F) are the factors that “change” the diamond from mere carbon into a treasured commodity. After millions of years undergoing this pressure and heat, the rough stones are settled in diamond-bearing rock and from there, wait for a volcanic eruption to bring them to the surface.Diamond Mining Techniques

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Buying Diamond Jewelry at Online Jewelry Stores

Read about how to get good deals on genuine diamonde jewelry online. Read More.l

Gemstones Buying Guides, Expert Advice, Online Gemstone Shopping Tips

Welcome to the dazzling world of gemstones! You will find out all the shiny details about gem stones, what type of gemstones can be found out there and how from dusty hard rocks they transform into that precious shiny ring necklace or pendant in your nearby jewelry store. Read More.


Now you should be able to evaluate and identify a genuine emerald from synthetic or fake emerald. Also you should be able to judge quality of emerald and also be able to find the source of emerald. This will help you in getting a genuine and good quality emerald when shopping at online jewelry stores.
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Online Shopping Tips - How to Buy Authentic Jewelry, Genuine Gemstones, Natural Diamonds & Real Gold

What is a Genuine Gemstone? Know All About Genuine Gemstones. Read More.

What is Authentic Jewelry? Know All About Authentic. Read More.

What is Certified Jewelry? Know All About Certified Jewelry. Read More.

What is Fine Designer Jewelry? Know All About Fine Jewelry. Read More.

Genuine Gemstones Identification? Know All About Fine Genuine Gemstones. Read More.

What is Real Gold, Platinum, Silver, Palladium or Fake Gold Filled, Gold Plated? Know All About Real Gold, Platinum, Silver, Palladium, Platinum, Silver, Palladium. Read More.

Jewelry Caring & Cleaning, Ruby Jewelry Caring & Cleaning, Sapphire Jewelry Caring & Cleaning, Emerald Jewelry Caring & Cleaning, Diamond Caring & Cleaning. Read More.

Genuine Diamond Testers, Genuine Gemstones Testers, Real Metal Testers, Authentic Jewelry Testers. ? Know All About Testers to Identify Natural Diamonds, Genuine Gemstones, Real Metals and Authentic Jewelry. Read More.

Sndgems Jewelry Trade Affiliations, Read More and Conflict-Free Diamonds. Read More.
Celebrity News - Red Carpet, Oscars, Celebrity Jewelry. Read More.
Fine-Quality Burma Ruby, Ceylon Ruby, Kashmir Sapphire, Burma Sapphie, Columbian Emerald Guides. Read More.
Complete Online Shopping Guide to ensure safe shopping, getting quality value product with money back guarantee when shopping online for jewelry. Read More.

Identification of Synthetic or Fake Emeralds from Genuine Emeralds Guidelines. Read More.

Identification of Synthetic or Fake Rubies and Sapphires from Genuine Rubies and Sapphires Guides. Read More.

Identification of Ruby, Sapphire Sources - If they're from Burma, Ceylon or Thailand. Read More.
Identification of Emerald Sources - If they're from Columbia, Zambia, Brazil, Africa. Read More.
Complete Online Shopping Guide to ensure safe, secure online jewelry shopping. Read More.


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